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Scriptural Instructions anb ^llrgorus 





Compiler of the "Masonic Carpets of Blue Lodge, Chapter and Council 
Masonry," and other Masonic Publications. 














IN presenting a new volume to the Masonic Fra- 
ternity, and soliciting their patronage for it, it is 
incumbent on the compiler to show wJierein it differs 
from, and claims superiority over, other publica- 
tions already in the market. 

The great number of Masons do not sufficiently 
discriminate between the doctrines, covenants and 
aims of the different degrees. The Three, Seven, or 
Nine Degrees, conferred in the various Masonic 
bodies, are apt to be jumbled up in the minds of 
their recipients, as though they were only so many 
sections of tlie same Degree. The more striking 
parts of the ceremony are remembered, while the 
instructions, which give the rational explanations 
of the emblems, are forgotten. Something, then, is 
needed which the brother can take home with him 
and read, to refresh his mind upon what is, in 
reality, the only practical part of the Masonic in- 
stitution. For this part the "Monitor" is used, and 


so far as it goes it supplies that want. But the 
"Monitor" is not sufficiently diffuse. There is not 
sufficient latitude given to the historical branch 
of the subject; nor in the moral application of 
Masonry is the "Monitor" precise and distinct. 
Something more has been wanted by generations of 
Masons, and it is strange that none of the Masonic 
authors have attempted to supply that want. 

" The Masonic Ladder" has been prepared with 
reference to this very want. It is so arranged that 
the brother may, by its perusal, recall the more 
striking parts of the Degrees he has taken; may 
judge of the extent of his covenants; may under- 
stand what bearings the history and geography of 
the Holy Land have upon the traditions that have 
been communicated to him; and may trace out to 
its full extent the excellent morality taught in each 
Degree. At the same time that "The Masonic 
Ladder" assists the brother to remount the steps 
he has taken, and enjoy over again the pleasant 
thoughts experienced when he first took them, they 
communicate no secrets to an outsider. Like the 
Bible itself, which is full of Masonic secrets to the 


initiated, "The Masonic Ladder" can not open the 
way to the arcana of the Order save to those who 
have once penetrated to them. 

The compiler has had able assistance in the prep* 
aration of this volume, and all the matter contained 
in it, whether original or selected, has been re-written 
and adapted to the plan upon which the look was 

The compiler is so well known as the author and 
publisher of Sherer* s "Masonic Carpets" and "Ma- 
sonic Degree-Books" that he will be indulged in 
saying that "The Masonic Ladder" is prepared in 
strict accordance with those well-known and popu- 
lar productions. The form of the Emblems, and 
the order of their arrangement, were guides in com- 
bining "The Masonic Ladder" so that the two may 
go together. Every Lodge that has heretofore pur- 
chased a Carpet, or may hereafter supply itself with 
a Degree-Book, can now have a volume explana- 
tory of it. This is a desideratum long sought for 
by the Lodges. 







THESE three Degrees are conferred, according to the 
system adopted throughout the Masonic world, in Lodges 
of Symbolical Masonry. The ballot is taken in the Third 
or Master Mason's Degree, absolute unanimity being es- 
sential to an election. All discipline for vice, immoral- 
ity, improprieties, and the violation of Masonic laws, 
originates in this Order of Masonry. 

ASK, and ye shall receive ; 

SEEK, ye shall surely find; 
KNOCK, ye shall no resistance meet. 

If come with ready mind; 
For all that ASK, and ask aright, 
Are welcome to our Lodge to-night 

Lay down the bow and spear; 

Resign the sword and shield: 
Forget the arts of warfare here, 

The 'arms of peace to wield ; 
For all that SEEK, and seek aright, 
Are welcome to our Lodge to-night 

Bring hither thoughts of peace; 

Bring hither words of love: 
Diffuse the pure and holy joy, 

That corneth from above; 
For all that KNOCK, and knock aright, 
Are welcome to our Lodge to-night 

ASK help of Him that 's high ; 

SEEK grace of Him that 's true : 
KNOCK patiently, the hand is nigh, 

Will open unto you; 
For all that ASK, SEEK, KNOCK aright, 
Are welcome to our Lodge to-night 



WHERE two or three assemble round 

In work the Lord approves, 
His spirit with the group is found 

For 't is the place lie loves : 
Be now all hearts to friendship given, 
For we, the Sons of Light, are seven. . 

Bring here the Gavel and the Gauge, 

Those implements renowned; 
And from each conscience disengage 

The faults that there abound: 
Be now afar each folly driven, 
For we, the Sons of Light, are seven. 

Display the Law, the volume grase 
With Compass and with Square; 

Illume the tapers in their place, 
And all for work prepare: 

We'll please our Master well this even, 

For we, the Sons of Light, are seven. 

Spread o'er us yon rich Canopy, 

Set up the Ladder high, 
That angel-visitants may see 

And from their stations fly : 
Where Faith, Hope, Charity have striven, 
And we, the Sons of Light, are seven. 




THE Degree of Entered Apprentice is the initial letter 
of the Masonic alphabet, the first round in the ladder 
of grades, variously numbering three, seven, nine, eleven, 
twenty-nine, one hundred and twenty-five, or whatever 
figures the fancy of modern ritualists may assume to 
embrace all the Degrees of Freemasonry. An Entered 
Apprentice is a beginner, a neophyte. All that is ex- 
plained to him in the First Degree must be in the sense 
of laying down a foundation; for he can have no pre- 
vious information or instruction upon which to base it. 

Yet the Entered Apprentice, in theory, is already a 
Mason, even before he enters the Lodge;, that is, he 
must be already prepared in heart, for there is nothing 
in Masonic science that can do the work of heart-prepa- 
ration. And the neophyte must have had some exoteric 
knowledge of Masonry as a public institution, because he 
is required to declare that "he has long entertained a 
favorable opinion of it." 

She theory which makes the character of the Entered 



Apprentice that of "a hewer of wood and drawer of 
water" does not militate against the fact that to his 
more advanced brethren he is "not now as a servant, 
but above a servant, a brother beloved." 

ASK AND RECEIVE. The manner of application at the 
door of God's favor, symbolized in the Closed Door, is 
described in various passages. God said to Solomon: 
" Ask what I shall give thee." Elsewhere it is recorded: 
"Ask for the old paths, where is the good way, and walk 
therein." "Ask, and ye shall receive, that your joy 
may be full." "Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, 
and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto 
you." "If any man lack wisdom, let him ask of God 
that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not; and 
it shall be given him." 

In close connection with the symbolism of the Closed 
Door is that of tho Three Knocks, peculiar to the Ma- 
sonic Ritual. A splendid genius, now deceased, extend- 
ing the Masonic theory beyond the vale of time, figures 
the Grand Master of the Universe standing in the Celes- 
tial Orient upon "the appointed day," and giving the 
Three Knocks which shall summon the sheeted dead. 
At the first knock, the ground of their interment begins 
to heave with expectation. All nature is hushed. Earth 
and heaven await with trembling the consummation. At 
the second knock, bone comes to his fellow, flesh re- 
clothes them ; blood moves once more through the veins, 
and the dead are ready for the last summons. It falls, 
and at once the armies of the dead arise, stand erect, 
facing the East, and listen to the words of their Maker ! 

Every thing in Masonic Science admits of a rational 


wcplanation. In truth, Freemasonry is the perfection of 
reason. All its instructions conform to mathematical 
ideas, and the simplest drawings of right angles, horizon- 
tals, and perpendiculars form emblems of greater signifi- 
cance upon its trestle-board. As the architect would 
say that " all the parts of his edifice are tested by those 
three emblems, the square, the level, and the plumb, be- 
cause they are the instruments by which the right angle, 
the horizontal, and the perpendicular are made upon his 
drawing," so in Freemasonry, which is but another 
name for moral architecture, all methods of communi- 
cation known to the ancient Craft are to be subjected 
to the same tests, and such as fail are spurious. Thus 
these simple emblems, the first upon the trestle-booard, 
become among the most important. When two per- 
sons meet, who are able to recount similar necessities, 
trials, and successes, what mutual disclosures take place ! 
What trustful communications, what tender sympathy is 
manifested! Then one soul gushes out and flows over 
into the other, and time steals rapidly on. Such is 
the nature of Masonic intercourse between sympathetic 

THE DAGGER. In the Master Mason's lecture, the em- 
blem of "The Sword pointing to the naked Heart" ex- 
presses the judgment reserved to the last day for those 
who presumptuously sin against God and their fellow- 
men. The same idea is conveyed, but in a more re- 
stricted form, by the emblem of the Dagger. It reminds 
us that there is an inward monitor, the conscience, which 
will not be silent when the heart has resolved upon sin. 
A person entering the Masonic institution with a view 
to betray its secrets and violate its covenants need not 


think that our Order has no avenger. The voice of God 
within him is our avenger, and the eternal justice of 
Him who has wisely permitted the existence of this So- 
ciety for countless ages speaks even now through that 
voice to his heart, and will speak in thunder-tones to his 
guilty soul on the Judgment-day. It needs not that 
any penalty be inflicted by the Craft upon the betrayer 
of secrets save the necessary discipline of expulsion. 
We can leave the guilty in the hands of God, who is the 
avenger of his own laws. 

Nor can the utmost treachery of evil men divulge what 
it is our interest as a society to preserve. Our secrets 
are lawful and honorable. They were intrusted in peace 
and honor to the Masons of ancient times, and they will 
be so transmitted to the ages to come. 

THE APRON. There are two prominent ideas con- 
nected with the Masonic use of the Apron : that of pro- 
tecting the garments from the defilement of the materials 
with which the practical builders wrought, and that of 
the distinguishing mark or badge of the Craft. The first 
notice in Scripture of an Apron, is where our first par- 
ents, having their eyes opened, and seeing themselves 
naked, sewed together fig-leaves and made themselves 
aprons. But this was not worn for a purpose analogous 
to ours. The Masonic Apron is exhibited as a continual 
memento, both to himself and those around him, that he 
is under peculiar engagements to keep his conscience 
void of offense, both to God and man. 

But the idea, fully reviewed, becomes still more tender 
and affecting. The Masonic Apron is not made of mate- 
rial of an ordinary sort, such as is used for garments of 
warmth, decency, or protection. It is made of lamb- 


skin, and that only, and it thus incorporates into its real 
ordinary meaning all that pertains to that Divine emblem 
of innocence. This makes up one of the finest allegories 
in Freemasonry, and those members of the Fraternity 
who are Christians see in their Apron every thing 
taught in the Altar, the Thorny Crown, and the Cross. 

THE TWENTY-FOUR INCH GAUGE. The proper division 
of our time involves every thing useful in our life. Our 
. time is our life; they expire together. He who wastes 
the one, wastes the other. Nothing but a systematic 
distribution of time can accomplish the purposes for 
which we were placed in this world. A portion for God, 
a portion for needful avocations, a portion for refresh- 
ment and sleep this is the division that Freemasonry 
enjoins. It were well for every member of the Craft to 
resolve, in his moments of prayerful reflection, that he 
will improve, in the best manner possible, all his leisure 
noments in growing in morality, and to be daily increas- 
ing his moral stature in conformity with the lessons in- 
culcated upon the Masonic trestle-board. 

THE COMMON GAVEL. The necessity of a great and 
radical removing of those evil things that incrust and 
encumber the conscience is as great as that of breaking 
off the outside crust and envelopments from the marble 
before a perfect statue can be formed. The emblem 
that suggests this necessity is the Gospel. How greatly 
the beauty of the immortal soul is disfigured, its useful- 
ness impaired, its happiness destroyed, and the God who 
made it, dishonored, for want of the proper use of this 
simple instrument for cleansing, trimming, and lightening 
the soil! 

THE THREE GREAT LIGHTS. The combination of the 


three objects, the Holy Bible, the Square, and the Com- 
pass, under this denomination, is not incongruous when 
the character of the instructions they convey to the 
Masonic mind is considered. The first guides our faith, 
the second our works, the third our passions. Belief, 
labor, spirit these are the three ideas conjoined in 
this beautiful trio. It is not the reverence we bear to 
them as tangible objects that is considered here. The 
Mason reveres the Bibh; he does not revere any other 
tangible object. But these three objects are conjoined 
here simply as emblems, or moral instructors, teaching 
great inward lessons by outward forms. 

THE THREE LESSER LIGHTS. Pursuing the imagery 
employed in the last paragraph, we make the three lesser 
lights, or mediums through which instruction is conveyed 
to the Craft, to be the Sun, Moon, and Master of the 
Lodge. The government of the Master is analogous to 
that exercised over the day by the Sun, over the night 
by the Moon a thought which is amplified in the lec- 
tures of the Past Master. Much care is exercised in 
the ritual of the Entered Apprentice to teach the respect 
due to the Master of the Lodge, without which, order 
would be lost and innovations flood the Institution. 

THE ALTAR. As a support to the copy of the Holy 
Scriptures, which forms so essential a piece in the fur- 
niture of the Lodge, the Altar would be a highly con- 
spicuous object, were there no other meaning conveyed 
by it. As an emblem, however, it calls to mind the 
piety of Abel, Noah, Abraham, and other Old Testament 
worthies, who are recorded as the builders of altars. It 
more particularly suggests a sacrifice of prayer and 
praise to God. 


PRAYER. The motto, "To Labor is to Pray," is most 
congenial to Freemasonry. Much will be said through- 
out this volume upon the use of prayer as an essential 
feature in the rituals of this ancient Institution. At 
first, man was permitted to converse with his Maker, 
face to face. But since the fall, a new, yet tender mode 
of communication has been divinely instituted between 
the soul and its Creator, and this is a fundamental land- 
mark in Masonry. 

FAITH. The first of the three principal rounds in the 
Masonic Ladder is denominated Faith. This is a grace 
of which the Holy Writings are full. It is the cheer of 
the sorrowing, and the life of the just. It is the credit 
we give to the declarations of God, or to the evidences 
of the facts or propositions presented us in the Bible. 
The faith, without which we can not please God, combines 
assent with reliance, belief with trust. True faith involves 
the forsaking of all known sin^ and a cheerful and con- 
stant obedience to God's commands. 


The Entered Apprentice is one who, like the wise 
king of the line of David, chose the better part. 

When in the dreams of night he lay, 

Fancy-led through earth and air, 
Whispered from the heavenly way, 

The voice of promise met his ear; 
Fancy ceased his pulse to thrill 

Gathered home each earnest thought 
And his very heart was still, 

Awhile the gracious words he caught 


"Ask me whatso'er them wilt, 
Fame or wealth, or royal power; 

Ask me, ask me, and thou sbalt 
Such favors have as none before!" 

Silence through the midnight air 
Silence in the thoughtful breast 

What of all that 's bright and fair, 
' Appeared in youth and hope the best? 

*T was no feeble tongue replied, 

While in awe his pulses stood: 
" Wealth and riches be denied, 

But give me WISDOM, voice of God! 
Give me wisdom in the sight 

Of the people thou dost know; 
Give me of thyself the light, 

And all the rest I can forego." 

Thus, Lord, in visions fair, 

When we hear thy promise-voice, 
Thus like him will we declare, 

That WISDOM is our dearest choice. 
Light of heaven, ah, priceless boon! 

Guiding o'er the troubled way; 
What is all an earthly sun, 

To His celestial, chosen ray? 

Wisdom hath her dwelling reared, 

Lo, the mystic pillars seven ! 
Wisdom for her guests hath cared, 

And meat, and wine, and bread hath given 
Turn we not, while round us cry, 

Tongues that speak her mystic word; 
They that scorn her voice shall die, 

But whoso hear are friends of God. 



THE Second Section of the Entered Apprentice's Lec- 
ture is explanatory of the first, being directed chiefly to 
showing how reasonable are all the ceremonies and ob- 
servances of initiation when properly explained. The 
greater part of it is esoteric, or private, and, as such, 
can not be explained to any save those who have regu- 
larly entered the portals of the Lodge. 

LEBANON, JOPPA, AND MORIAH. These three locali- 
ties in the Holy Land are closely combined in the Ma- 
sonic theory : Lebanon, as the source of the great cedars 
used in the construction of the Temple ; Joppa, as the 
place of their transhipment; Moriah, on the site upon 
which the edifice was built. The quarries from which 
the stone was drawn are supposed to be those found in 
the northern side of the range of hills on which the city 
of Jerusalem stands. The following lines express the 
symbolism which the words in the caption suggest : 

Thine in the Quarry, whence the stone 
For mystic workmanship is drawn; 

On Jordan's shore, 

On Zarthan's plain, 
Though faint and weary, thine alone. 
The gloomy mine knows not a ray; 
The heavy toil exhausts the day; 

But love keeps bright 

The weary heart, 
And sings, I'm thine, and thine alway. 

Thine on the Hill, whose cedars rear 
Their perfect forms and foliage fair; 

Each graceful shaft, 

And deathless leaf, 


Of Masons' love the symbols are. 

Thine, when a smile pervades the heaven; 

Thine, when the sky's with thunder riven; 

Each echo swells 

Through answering hills, 
My Mason-prayer; for thee 'tis given. 

Thine in the Temple, holy place, 
Where silence reigns, the type of peace ; 

With grip and sign, 

And mystic line, 
My Mason's love I do confess. 
Each block I raise, my friendship grows, 
Cemented firmly, ne'er to loose; 

And when complete, 

The work I greet, 
Thine in the joy my bosom knows. 

Thine at the midnight, in the cave ; 
Thine on the floats upon the wave; 

By Joppa's hill, 

By Kedron's rill, 

And thine when Sabbath rest we have. 
Yes, yes, dear friend, my spirit saith, 
I'm thine until and after death; 

No bounds control 

The Mason's soul, 
Cemented with a Mason's faith. 

THE SETTING MAUL. As it is one of the wonders of 
Divine power, and the fitness of things, that from poison- 
ous and inodorous flowers the insect extracts the purest 
honey, so it is in the transforming power of Masonic 
symbolisms to turn this emblem, the Setting Mauls, in 
itself suggestive of noise and violence, into a sweet em- 
blem of peace. " The house was built of stone, made 
ready before it was brought thither, so that there was 


neither hammer, ax, nor any tool of iron heard in the 
house while it was in building." The analogy between 
operative and speeulative architecture seizes with avid- 
ity upon this sublime thought, and peace reigns through 
all the chambers of the Temple of Freemasonry. 

" I will give peace in the land," promised Jehovah to 
his people, while yet in the wilderness, " and none shall 
make you afraid." "Behold I give unto him my cove- 
nant of peace." " There is peace to thee, and no hurt." 
" The Lord will bless his people with peace." " Glory 
to God in the highest, and on earth peace." 

Such are the thoughts suggested by the Setting Mauls. 
At the period of the temple-building, universal peace 
reigned throughout the earth, and thus the materials for 
building and adorning, which were brought from the 
utmost parts of the world, were readily collected. It is 
only in a time of peace that Freemasonry can flourish. 

THE SHOE. The Shoe was ever an emblem of signifi- 
cance in Freemasonry. To remove the Shoe, as Moses 
was commanded to do before the Burning Bush, arid as 
Joshua was commanded before Jericho, was a token of 
reverence. The High-Priest in the Temple went bare- 
foot, as a mark of Divine respect. The removal of the 
Shoe was also a token of humiliation and subjection, as 
when David fled before Absalom, and Isaiah walked 
barefoot for three years, and Ezekiel walked barefoot 
upon a certain occasion. Hence, the expression in 
Psalm cviii, "Over Edom will I cast out my shoe," 
imports the subjugation of the country over which the 
shoe is cast. 

All these ideas are embraced, to a greater or less 
degree, in the Masonic use of the Shoe as an emblem. 


The plucking off one's shoe, and giving it to another, 
was a significant token of a surrendered right of privi- 
lege, and this is more directly the Masonic idea. It is 
this which is expressed in the following lines : 

Take this pledge ; it is a token 
Of that truth which ne'er was broken- 
Truth, which binds the mystic tie 
Under the All-seeing Eye. 

this pledge; the ancient brother 
By this type bound every other, 
Fondly, firmly; death alone 
Rends the bond that makes us one, 

Take this pledge ; the type so lowly 
Is, of all our symbols, holy; 
'Tis Divine; it tells of One, 
Gives the raindrops and the sun. 

Take this pledge ; the token sealeth 
All the Judgment-day revealeth; 
Honor, truth, fraternal grace 
In thy hands with this we place, 

THE CABLE-TOW. The explanation of this emblem is 
that of the covenant or tie that binds Masons to each 
other and to the institution. That this tie must be one 
of much strength , is evidenced by the great antiquity of 
the Masonic Order, and the firmness with which it* mem- 
bers, in all ages, have resisted every allurement to be- 
tray their trust. Scriptural quotations convey the spirit 
of this emblem: "Draw me not away with the wicked." 
"Draw me, and we will run after thee." "No man can 
come to me, except the Father, which hath sent me, draw 


him.' 5 "If any man draw back, my soul shall have no 
pleasure in him." "We are not of them who draw back 
unto perdition," 

The extent or reach of the Masonic covenants, repre- 
sented by the Cable-Tow, is well expressed in the moni- 
torial explanation of the extent of the Lodge. It reaches 
as far as to heaven, suggesting our duty to God; as far 
as the utmost bounds of the habitable earth, suggesting 
our duty to our fellow-men ; as far as the inmost re- 
cesses of our own hearts, suggesting our duty to our- 

There is a cord of length, 

There is a chain of strength 
Around you each I see the sacred coil; 

How long, ah, well I know; 

How strong, your deeds do show 
The while you labor in the sacred toil. 

THE DAGGER. Our remarks upon a preceding em- 
blem, the SETTING MAULS, are partly applicable here. 
Although the Dagger is a warlike weapon, yet, as a 
Masonic emblem, it has its application, in a gentle and 
pacific character. It suggests the quiet conscience, 
which results from a sense of Masonic covenants kept 
and duties done. Tliis inward monitor, the -conscience, 
which is the terror of the wicked, is the sweetest com- 
panion of the virtuous mind. Paul wrote to his con- 
verts, "Our rejoicing is in this, the testimony of our 
conscience;" and, again, "We trust we have a good 
conscience in all things, willing to live honestly." In 
an address he says, "Herein do I exercise myself to 
have always a good conscience, void of offense toward 
God and toward men." " They being convicted by their 


own conscience, went out one by one," is the description 
of a scene in which the Scribes and Pharisees of olden 
time figured. Cain, after the cruel blow fell which de- 
prived him of his brother, was convicted by the voice of 
his own conscience. The further application of this em- 
blem may be seen under the same head upon a preceding 

THE JOINED HANDS. This is an emblem of Fidelity, 
an ingredient in the Masonic cement without which the 
walls of the institution would speedily crumble and fall. 
As -an emblem, it was well known to the first painters 
and sculptors of antiquity. Jonathan and David exem- 
plified this principle in a remarkable degree. He alone 
who is capable of genuine friendship can appreciate the 
happiness of reciprocating tokens of fidelity with those 
who are deserving of confidence. 

The right hand, which is the instrument of mechanical 
activity and of strength, is also the seat of Fidelity. 
"Thy right hand, God," saith the Prophet of Abarim, 
"is become glorious in power." "From the Lord's 
right hand went a fiery law for them." "Thy right 
hand," says the Psalmist, "hath holden me up. Save 
with thy right hand, Lord !" 

The use- of the right hand, through all the grades of 
Freemasonry, is peculiarly impressive. It combines the 
idea of strength with that of love. Taking the candi- 
date by the right hand is an assurance of protection, of 
brotherly guidance, of brotherly affection. It, in effect, 
says to him, that the security of the Craft is around 
him, the banded strength of the Lodge defends him, and 
the esteem and love of all hearts are secured unto him, 
so long as he remains faithful to his trust. 


THE LAMB. In our paragraph upon the Apron, in a 
preceding page, we remarked that the most tender and 
beautiful thought connected with its symbolism is, that 
the Masonic Apron is made of lamb-skin alone. This 
emblem of innocence is so peculiarly appropriate, that 
even the Messiah himself condescended to represent his 
own spotless nature under the figure of a Lamb. One 
of the older prophets prefigures his death in the words, 
"He was led like a lamb to the slaughter." There is no 
passage in the Bible more affecting than this. In con- 
templating the Masonic emblem, the Lamb, the mind is 
suspended in solemn rapture between earth and heaven. 
A pacific temperament steals over the soul, and while we 
admire the tender and submissive nature of this gentle 
tenant of the field, we are taught what must be our own 
character if we would attain to that perfection of which 
Freemasonry teaches. Thus the very clothing of the 
Freemason, like the symbolical garments which covered 
the Priest under the typical law, is suggestive of the 
highest graces and virtues of our profession. 

FRIENDLY ADVICE. An old author proffers some ad- 
vice to gentlemen who may be inclined to become Ma- 
sons, of which the following is a synopsis : "When you 
intend to become a Freemason, go with your friend to 
the hall where the Lodge is held, and examine the Char- 
ter or Warrant under which the Lodge is held. See that 
it is written or printed on parchment, signed by some 
Grand Master, Deputy Grand Master, Grand Wardens, 
and Grand Secretary, and sealed with the Grand Lodge 
Seal; appointing certain persons named therein, with 
their successors, to be Master and Wardens ; authorizing 
them to congregate and hold a Lodge, and therein make 


and admit Freemasons according to ancient custom. 
Then call for the By-Laws, and having seriously perused 
them, consider whether your natural disposition will in- 
cline you to be conformable to them. Next call for the 
List of Members, where you may find the names of some 
of your most intimate and esteemed friends, and perhaps 
the names of some you would not wish to associate with. 
If these researches prove agreeable, you may then ven- 
ture to sign a petition for initiation, lay down your de- 
posit-money, and await with patience the result." 


THE Third Section of the Entered Apprentice's Lec- 
ture presents full details of the organization, fitting up, 
and history of the Lodge. The greater part of it is 
exoteric, and as such, may be explained to any inquirer, 
though even those passages that seem to have the least 
mystery about them are parts of the unwritten history 
of the Order, and can only be perfectly understood by 
the initiated. 

CONSTITUTION OF THE LODGE. To avoid those ir- 
regularities which would result upon the indiscriminate 
meetings of Masons, and the unrestricted working up of 
materials into the Lodge, it has been wisely ordained 
that no assemblage of the Craft can be opened with 
Masonic form, unless the presiding officer shall be fur- 
nished with a charter or warrant from the Grand Lodge 
possessing jurisdiction, empowering such an act. This 
is the source of temporal authority, and suggests a care- 
ful attention to forms. In addition to this, there must 
likewise be a copy of the Holy Scriptures. This is the 


source of Divine authority, and suggests a careful atten- 
tion to principles. With this copy, there must be -the 
essential accompaniments of the Square and Compass, 
admonishing the circle of laborers of the necessity of 
squaring their actions and circumscribing their passions. 
This suggests a careful attention to self-discipline, with- 
out which the workings of Freemasonry were as a sound- 
ing brass and a tinkling cymbal. 

Not less than seven members constitute a Lodge in 
this degree, and any assemblage not in accordance with 
all the requirements upon this page, that ventures to 
open a Lodge in Masonic form, is clandestine, and comes 
under the ban of the Craft universal. 

ANCIENT MEETING-PLACES. In days of old, the meet- 
ings of the Masonic Craft were held upon the summits 
of hills, or in crypts at their bases. This was for pur- 
poses of seclusion, which is essential to the Masonic 
work. Hills and dales were accounted sacred places; 
men thought themselves nearer God there than else- 
where. The law was given to Moses upon a mountain 
summit, nine thousand feet high. Some of the most 
affecting scenes between King Solomon and his builders 
occurred in the crypts beneath Mounts Moriah and Sion. 
The great sacrifice for sin, which terminated the Mosaic 
dispensation of rites and ceremonies, occurred upon Cal- 
vary, which is a part of the mountain range on which 
the city of Jerusalem stands. 

In modern times an attempt is made to express this 
symbolism by holding Lodge-meetings in the highest 
apartments of an edifice. Then there is nothing inter- 
venes between the covering of the Lodge on which 
heavenly bodies are depictured and the great canopy 


alluded to below, in which the heavenly bodies shine. 
No eyes look down upon the Mason-work but the eyes 
of angels deputed as ministering spirits to minister for 
them who shall be heirs of salvation, and the All-seeing 
Eye, which pervades the inmost recesses of the human 

EXTENT OF THE LODGE. The limits of the mystical 
Lodge are the cardinal points; nothing less will satisfy 
the expansive nature of the principles inculcated in this 
system. The apartment in which Masons assemble is 
symbolical of the universe, illimitable on every side, the 
proper temple of Deity, whose center is every- where, 
whose circumference is nowhere. To an entering Mason, 
it is the world iri miniature. 

"Wherever man is tracing 

The weary ways of care, 
'Midst arid deserts pacing, 

Or land of balmy air. 
We surely know each other; 

And with our words of cheer, 
The Brother hails his Brother, 

And hope wings lightly there. 

Wherever tears are falling, 

The soul's December rain 
Or heavy sighs are calling 

To human hearts in vain; 
Wherever prayer is spoken, 

In earnestness of faith, 
And we perceive the token 

That tells our Master's death; 

Wherever man is lying, 

Unnoticed and unknown, 
Uncared-for in his dying, 

Unheard in cry and groan, 


We surely knov T each other; 

And with our words of cheer, 
The Brother hails his Brother, 

And hope wings lightly there. 

SUPPORTS OF THE LODGE. The three foundation-stones 
upon which the structure of speculative Masonry was 
originally laid were entitled Wisdom, Strength, and 
Beauty. These were well named: for there was Wisdom 
to conceive the plan above all others practical; there 
was Strength to execute the plan above all others com- 
plicated and laborious; and there was Beauty to adorn 
the plan above all others capable of receiving the ele- 
gancies of thought. It were almost superfluous to com- 
ment upon these three words, Wisdom, Strength, and 
Beauty. "Happy," said the wisest of men, "is the man 
that findeth wisdom better than silver and gold, more 
precious than rubies. Length of days is in her right 
hand, and in her left hand riches and honor. Her ways 
are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace." 
"In Gibeon the Lord appeared to Solomon and said, 
Ask what I shall give thee; and Solomon said, Give thy 
servant an understanding heart." 

Let those who deny that Wisdom is evinced in the struc- 
ture of Freemasonry, explain, if they can, the exceeding 
Strength with which it has defied the influences of time 
and the oppositions of evil men. Let them explain the 
Beauty with which it stands before the world, the most 
perfect specimen of moral architecture extant, the most 
popular institution, the most highly respected in its 
membership, and the only esoterical system upon earth 
that has not yielded to the prying eyes of an inquisitive 


COVERING OF THE LODGE. In a preceding paragraph 
allusion is made to the fact that Lodges seek an upper 
chamber for their places of assemblage, so that there may 
be nothing interposed between them and the celestial con- 
cave, save their own ceiling, upon which are figured the 
heavenly bodies. In the symbolisms of the Masonic in- 
stitution, the covering of the Lodge is the starry-decked 
canopy, the nearest representation of the heavenly home 
beyond which is afforded in this life. Every object in a 
Mason's Lodge points to this. The hopes, watered and 
fed by the inculcations of the lectures, will have their 
fruition only in this. To the happy land, veiled by the 
resplendent curtain above, he strives to approach by a 
Ladder, seen by the sleeper upon Bethel's pillar, when 
in his lonely slumber God vouchsafed to him a vision. 
The assent by grades agrees with our own consciousness 
of weakness. There are many steps, intentionally made 
short and easy, to conform to human weakness, and every 
meeting of the Lodge affords us new encouragement to 
advance along the ascending way. Three of the steps, 
Faith, Hope, and Charity, are more distinctly marked 
than the others; and happy the man who places his feet 
successively upon them. Firmly planted upon the third, 
the canopy of heaven is not far distant, which being 
drawn aside by an angel's hand, the flight is ended, the 
aspirant has his reward ! 

FURNITURE OF THE LODGE. In subsequent pages of 
this volume, much space is devoted to the Furniture of 
the Sanctuary in the wilderness and that of the Tem- 
ple of Solomon. These were elaborate, costly, and em- 
blematical of all the purposes of the Mosaic dispensation 
The Furniture of the Masonic Lodge is more simple, yet 


equally expressive it is the Holy Bible, Square, and 
Compass. In the first section of this Lecture these 
objects are merely described as emblems, but in the 
present connection they have a higher meaning. The 
precepts and examples contained in the volume thus used 
to furnish the Lodge are held in highest veneration. 
He who esteems them not, is ignorant and unworthy of 
our companionship. It is at once a guide through the 
present world and a passport to that which is to come. 
A terrible denunciation has been threatened to him who 
shall add to or diminish from the matter which the finger 
of God has placed there. It is dedicated to God in the 
threefold division of the Masonic Furniture. 

The Square will have ample elucidation in other por- 
tions of this volume ; and it only needs here to say, that, 
in the proper distribution of the Lodge Furniture, it is 
dedicated to the Master of the Lodge, as the Compass is 
to the Members: the Square teaching official responsi- 
bility, the Compass individual regulation of desires and 
due circumspection of passions. 

ORNAMENTS OF THE LODGE. As one of the three prin- 
cipal supports of the Lodge is termed Beauty, it is an- 
alogous to this that there should be Ornaments of the 
Lodge. These are the Mosaic Pavement, the Indented 
Skirting that surrounds the Pavement, and the Star in 
its center. These, like all other Masonic objects, are 
emblematical of moral and religious instructions. It has 
already been said that the apartment in which Masons 
assemble represents the moral universe; the very floor 
of it suggests the course of human life, checkered with 
good and evil. One who enters it is reminded, in that 
epitome of his own career, of the vicissitudes that are 


both before "him and behind him. If he is in a condition 
of distress, he derives comfort from the reflection that he 
is surrounded with white squares; if in a condition of 
prosperity, he is taught to be humble, in view of the 
darker passages of life, to which his very next step may 
expose him. 

The Border, or Skirting, is an emblem full of hope to 
those who trust, as all Masons profess to do, in God; it 
prefigures the blessings that are derived from a steady 
dependence upon Divine Providence, which has its refer- 
ence in the Star that gleams in the center. To such of 
the Craft as blend their hopes of bliss in Jesus, the Son 
of God, this combination of emblems suggests the sub- 
limest aspirations. 

LIGHTS OF THE LODGE. The emblems representing the 
sources of Masonic light, or rather the mediums through 
which Masonic instruction is directly conveyed to the 
membership, are called Lights. They represent the 
Master and the two Wardens, who are the windows 
through which the lights of tradition, revelation, and the 
Grand Lodge having jurisdiction, can react the minds 
of the Craft. This is but an extended reference of the 
thought conveyed in our elucidation of the Lesser Lights 
in a preceding page. The situation of these lights cor- 
responding with those of the principal officers of the 
Lodge, refers the mind to traditions of the Tabernacle 
and the Temple, which are esoteric ; also to the course of 
the sun through the heavens. 

JEWELS or THE LODGE. By the term Jewel, we imply 
whatever is esteemed most precious among us, and dis- 
played as such to represent the abounding wealth of the 
Institution. Morality, Equality, and Rectitude of Life, 


for instance, are three moral treasures, which have their 
emblems in the Square, the Level, and the Plumb. The 
rude material in the quarry of human life, though in- 
crusted with many excrescences, is yet precious as afford- 
ing us objects for our moral work, and this is represented 
by the Rough Ashlar. The same material, when fitted 
by Divine Grace and the practice of all virtues for the 
Temple above, is typified by the Perfect Ashlar; while 
the Book of God, read in nature and revelation, from 
which we derive all necessary degree instruction while 
upon earth, is represented by the Trestle-board. These 
three symbols are happily selected and happily named 

Who wears THE SQUARE upon his breast, 

Does in the eye of God attest, 
And in the face of man, 

That all his actions do compare 

With the Divine, th' unerring Square- 
That squares great virtue's plan : 

That he erects his Edifice 

By this design, and this, and this I 

Who wears THE LEVEL, says that pride 
Does not within his soul abide, 

Nor foolish vanity; 
That man has but a common doom, 
And from the cradle to the tomb, 

A common destiny : 
That he erects his Edifice 
By this design, and this, and this t 

vVho wears THE G; ah, type divine! 
Abhors the atmosphere of sin, 
And trusts in God alone ; 


His Father, Maker, Friend, he knows 
He vows, and pays to God his vows, 

As by th' Eternal throne : 
And he erects his Edifice 
By this design, and this, and this J 

Who wears THE PLUMB, behold how true 
His words, his walk! and could we view 

The chambers of his soul, 
Each thought enshrined, so pure, so good/ 
By the stern line of rectitude, 

Points truly to the goal : 
And he erects his Edifice 
By tfos design, and this, and this I 

Thus life and beauty come to view, 
In each design our fathers drew, 

So glorious, so sublime ; 
Each breathes an odor from the bloom 
Of gardens bright beyond the tomb, 

Beyond the flight of time: 
And bids us build on this and this, 
The walls of God's own Edifice! 

SITUATION OF THE LODGE. The Lodge is situated due 
east and west. All knowledge emanated from the east. 
Mankind originally emigrated from the east. The He- 
brews used the word East to describe all the countries or 
provinces lying around and beyond the rivers Tigris and 
Euphrates, or east or north-east of Judea. The expres- 
sion in Genesis, "from the east/' denotes the country 
east or south-east of Mount Ararat. In traveling from 
the foot of that mountain to the plain of Shinar, the de- 
scendants of Noah would pass southerly on the eastern 
side of the mountains of Media till they came opposite 


to Shinar, or to a point north-east of Babylon, from 
which, by a direct western course, they would pass into 
Assyria and the plain of Shinar. This is said to be the 
usual caravan route to this day. 

The Tabernacle in the Wilderness was set east and 
west; so was the Temple of Solomon. The walls for- 
merly inclosing that edifice are proofs of this, corre- 
sponding in their present direction with the cardinal 
points. The miraculous blast by which the Red Sea was 
opened before the feet of the Israelitish host, blew from 
the east. The bodies of the Masonic dead are buried 
due east and west. 

"DEDICATION OF THE LODGE. While the central figure 
in the Lodge, the Holy Scriptures, is dedicated to Him 
from whom it came, the Lodge itself, with all its furni- 
ture, surroundings, and labors, is dedicated to one of two 
Sainted Patrons of Masonry, men who in their day ex- 
emplified the higher graces taught in the lectures 
Saint John the Baptist and Saint John the Evangelist. 
The elder of these was sent from. God to announce the 
coming of Jesus Christ. The other was called, by the 
commanding voice of Jesus, to leave the humble avoca- 
tion in which he had been reared, and go out into the 
world as an evangelist. Whatever virtues of courage, 
perseverance, obedience to God's Word, and unswerving 
fidelity that either of these Masonic patrons displayed, 
is adopted among the treasures of the Lodge. It mat- 
ters not whether the apocryphal statements which make 
these men to have been Masons are true or false, it is 
enough to know that their moral labors were our moral 
labors, their victories over sin were our victories, and 
the bright world gained by their perseverance in a good 


cause is the same wherever the Supreme Architect pre- 
sides, and where there are "many mansions" remaining 
for us. In the mean time, it is safe to aver that no deed 
whose character would have prevented either of these, 
two men from engaging in it, is suitable to us, who have 
dedicated our Lodge and its labors to them. 

TENETS OF MASONRY. It is but the summing up of 
what has already been repeatedly, intimated in these 
pages, to say that the tenets of Masonry are Brotherly 
Love, Relief, and Truth. Being so great a family of 
men, of all countries arid conditions, there is no cement 
would hold together such a band save that of Love. 
Being mutually interested in each other's welfare, it re- 
quires no law to compel us to look after the wants of 
such of the band as are sick, solitary, or in distress. 
The grand aim of the institution is best expressed in the 
charge given to the members, " to soothe the unhappy, 
sympathize with their misfortunes, compassionate th^ir 
miseries, and, as far as in us lies, restore peace to their 
troubled minds." Our friendships are formed and our 
connections established upon this basis. 

The first and greatest lesson communicated to each 
initiate is Tntih, to be a good man and true; true to 
God, true to the institution, true to his country, true to 
himself. Hypocrisy and deceit are abhorrent to the 
good Mason. The volume upon our altar is the Book 
of Truth. One reason for the peculiarly strong engage- 
ments under which the initiate is placed to preserve the 
essential merits of Freemasonry is, that by his fidelity 
in this lesser trust, the brethren may judge of his ability 
to hold fast the truth in all the greater relations of life 
and of eternity. 


tween the tenets and the virtues of Masonry is barely 
sufficient to make an easy grade in the moral assent. 
Temperance, Fortitude, Prudence, and Justice are judi- 
cious selections from those classes cf merits so abund- 
antly developed in the Scriptures. It is both our duty 
and our happiness, our labor and our reward, to culti- 
vate Temperance; the want of it unfits the initiate for 
usefulness and honor among the Craft, and renders him 
liable to the worst indiscretions. That mental stability 
which sustains with manly composure the evils of life, 
and enables a man to resist every proposal to do wrong, 
is Fortitude. Prudence stands at the helm, while For- 
titude buffets the tempest, and thus the voyage is made 
secure. " If thou faint in the day of adversity," said our 
First Grand Master, " thy strength is small ; the prudent 
man dealeth with knowledge, but the fool layeth open his 
folly." One of the most earnest of Evangelists said, 
"Every man that striveth for the mastery is temperate 
in all things." As the three -virtues above named re- 
late to our self-government, and the usefulness accruing 
therefrom, Justice, the last of the four, advises us in 
our dealings with others. The Lord, speaking through 
Moses, admonished his people in the wilderness: u That 
which is altogether just shalt thou follow, that thou 
mayest live;" and he promises that "the just shall live 
by faith." - 

MASONIC SERVICE. The manner of Masonic service 
is finely represented by the emblems of chalk, charcoal, 
and clay, the last in this section. From the lessons of 
antiquity we derive instruction in every step up the mys- 
tic Ladder. At this point we may know that the char- 


acteristics of our ancient brethren in their relations to 
their Masters were freedom, fervency, and zeal. Their 
freedom of service was manifest by night as by day, and 
they gave off their good works as generously as the rose- 
leaf its odor. Their fervency of service was like that of 
the meridian sun itself. Their zeal emulated that of the 
fertile soil, which in the most inclement season is pre- 
paring itself, through the hidden agencies of nature, for 
the work of production. Without such manner of service 
the great Temple could not have been completed in one 
ordinary generation. It was because heart and soul 
were thrown into the handiwork, that such a piece of 
perfection was begun and finished within the lifetime of a 
child. God was honored, not only in the work, but in 
the manner of it, and for thousands of years the story 
of the great Temple has perpetuated the freedom, fer- 
vency, and zeal of its builders. 

value of the Scriptures and the duty of perusing them 
appear from many considerations. We may estimate tho 
character and tendency of Divine revelation by contrast- 
ing the condition of countries where its true light shin- 
eth with that of other countries to which its beams have 
not extended. The heathen world is large enough, surely, 
for experiment. In many of its territories the richest 
blessings of sun and soil are enjoyed in abundance, and 
there external nature presents itself in its stateliest and 
loveliest forms; but where are the beauties of holiness? 
where the fruits and flowers of moral culture? Or if 
these are disparaged in comparison with intellectual 
stature and idolized genius, where are the distinguished 
philosophers and orators, historians and poets of pagan 


communities? Amidst numberless diversities of condi- 
tion, they seem to have only this in common to explain 
their wretchedness, that they want those oracles of God 
which have been committed unto us ; and the conclusions 
appear fairly deducible that it is, in the absence of the 
Scriptures, the people are there destroyed for lack of 
knowledge ; that spiritual ignorance, in addition to its 
proper maladies, has there entailed civil and mental 
prostration; and that scoffers in our native land owe to 
the emancipating influence of God's Word that very 
freedom of thinking which, with ungrateful and impious 
hand, they wield for the overthrow of its doctrines and 

.If we confine our attention to those countries which 
possess the Word of God, a comparison between that 
portion of the community by whom the Scriptures are 
perused, and that portion by whom they are neglected, 
will conduct us to a like conclusion. No doubt external 
propriety may, in many instances, be promoted by the 
simple circumstance of dwelling among Christians who 
are "living epistles of Jesus Christ, known and read of 
all men;" and it is not less certain that many may con- 
sult the records of truth, and yet hold the truth in un- 
righteousness. But these apparent exceptions do not 
invalidate the general and incontestible fact that the 
classes most conversant with God's Word are most dis- 
tinguished for the graces which it inculcates ; while they 
who consort with thieves, and partake with adulterers, 
^ho give their mouth to evil, and frame deceit with their 
tongue, are the wicked, who hate instruction and cast 
God's Word behind them. 

These thoughts, from the pen of a learned divine, are 


applicable to Masonry, a system founded upon the Bible 
and dependent upon the revealed Word of God for all 
its virtuous principles and inculcations. 

The effects marked above, as resulting upon the free 
spread of the Scriptures, are also manifest upon the op- 
erations of Freemasonry. Wherever a well-conducted 
Lodge is planted, its membership being chosen by the 
cautionary landmarks of the institution, and governed by 
its moral and spiritual code of laws, a general improve- 
ment is visible throughout the community. The vices 
of theft, debauchery, intemperance, profanity, Sabbath- 
breaking, and irreligion are much lessened, while the 
positive virtues of charity, self-control, and attention to 
religious duties are proportionally advanced. This phe- 
nomenon is not apparent upon the operations of any 
other society, within our knowledge, outside of the 
Church; and were there no other evidences of the 
merits of this ancient institution, this, that it. produces 
many of the best fruits of the Bible, would be sufficient 
to recommend it to all thoughtful persons. 



THIS LODGE OF FIVE from Tyre came, 
Their leader one of matchless fame ; 
All through the toiling eeasons seven, 
Their time upon this work was given. 

THIS LODGE OP FIVE from Joppa's shore 
To Sion's hill have journeyed o'er; 
The quarry's inmost crypt have traced, 
Whence many a stone the wall has graced. 

THIS LODGE OF FIVE have reared the shaft 
That on the eastward hails the Craft; 
And well ihey know each mystic line 
lhat sanctifies the great Design. 

THIS LODGE OF FIVE with faith obey 
The holy Law and holy Day, 
And humbly bow when'er they see 
The emblem of the Deity. 

THIS LODGE OF FIVE, for honest toil, 
Good wages have, Corn, Wine, and Oil; 
And should a brother be in want, 
They ne'er forget the covenant. 

THIS LODGE OF FIVE have nearly done 
The glorious work so long begun, 
And homeward-bound they soon will see 
The MASTER in eternity. 




THE Degree of Fellow Craft represents the Entered 
Apprentice complete. It is not merely the second grade 
in the series; all that is to follow does not express so 
great an advance from the Degree of Fellow Craft, as 
that of the Fellow Craft is from the Entered Apprentice. 
The candidate is no longer a beginner, working without 
wages, forbidden to look into the plans and drawings of 
the work, excluded from consultations, without a foun- 
dation, but a Fellow-workman with the best; paid an 
honest stipend, invited to give counsel upon questions 
of architectural difficulty, and assisted to build up a rep- 
utation, in which all the Craft will take a brotherly in- 

As, therefore, large privileges are conferred upon the 
Fellow Craft, so heavier responsibilities accumulate upon 
him. Covenants of power restrain him, duties are en- 
joined upon him, which" require industrious application 
of the best lessons learned in tho preceding grade ; and, 



above all, he is taught to reverence the name of Him 
from whom cometh every good and every perfect gift. 

THE ALTAR. The name of the Altar erected by Moses 
to commemorate his victory over the Amalekites at Rep- 
hidim, was Jehovah-nissi, signifying "the Lord, my Ban- 
ner." This title is equally appropriate to the Masonic 
Altar. "The Lord is the banner," or standard, of the 
institution in a peculiar sense; and the Altar, which is 
the most conspicuous object in the Lodge, is used to up- 
hold His Word before the eyes of the Craft. According 
to the Mosaic code, " whatsoever touched the Altar must 
be holy;" and this, again, applies with great force to the 
Masonic system, whose offerings are the most sound 
gifts in the power of man to bestow. The poet says: 

"Upon the sacred Altar lies, 
Ah ! many a precious sacrifice, 

Made by these working men ; 
The passions curbed, the lusts restrained, 
And hands with human gore unstained, 
And hearts from envy clean." 

All contained in the Masonic covenants, whether af- 
firmative or negative, whether in the nature of duties or 
restrictions, are so many sacrifices made for God and 
in the name of God. He alone who can communicate 
saving efficacy to any means of doing good, has com- 
manded his blessing from on high upon the sacrifices 
made on the Masonic Altar, and so may he ever do! 

PRAYER. The view of the Masonic Altar always sug- 
gests Prayer as well as sacrifice. The introduction of 
Prayer as an essential portion of the Masonic drama is 
so general, that the Verbal Landmark declares, "No 


man should ever enter upon any great and important 
undertaking without first invoking the blessings of 
Deity." Prayer, as understood in the Masonic theory, 
is the application of want to Him who only can relieve 
it; the voice of sin to Him who only can pa'rdon it. It 
is the urgency of poverty, the prostration of humility, 
the fervency of penitence, the confidence of trust. It is 
not eloquence, but earnestness; not the definition of 
helplessness, but the feeling of it ; not figures of speech, 
but compunction of soul. It is the " Lord save us, we 
perish," of Peter the cry of faith to the ear of mercy. 
Adoration is the noblest employment of created beings; 
confession the natural language of guilty creatures; grat- 
itude the spontaneous expression of pardoned sinners. 

Prayer is desire. It is not a conception of the mind, 
nor a mere effort of the intellect, nor an act of the 
memory; but an elevation of the soul toward its Maker, 
a pressing sense of our own ignorance and infirmity, a 
^consciousness of the perfection of God, of his readiness 
to hear, of his power to help, of his willingness to save. 
It is not an emotion produced in the senses, nor an 
effort wrought in the imagination ; but a determination 
of the will, an effusion of the heart. Prayer is the 
guide to self-knowledge, by prompting us to look after 
our sins, in order to pray against them; a motive to 
vigilance, by teaching us to guard against those sins 
which, through self-examination, we have been enabled to 

Prayer is an act both of the understanding and of the 
heart. The understanding must apply itself to the 
knowledge of the divine perfections, or the heart will 
not be led to the adoration of them. It would not be 


a reasonable service were the mind excluded. It must 
be rational worship, or the human worshiper would not 
bring to the service the distinguishing faculty of his na- 
ture, which is reason. It must be spiritual worship, or 
it would want the distinctive quality to make it accept- 
able to Him who has declared that he will be worshiped 
Jn spirit and in truth. 

Prayer is a privilege with which God has favored us, 
and a necessary part of that obedience which he has 
required of us to "pray without ceasing; in every thing 
by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving, letting 
our requests be made known unto God." 

THE SQUARE. In all languages, the idea Masonically 
conveyed by this emblem has an expression. The poet 
has done for the Masonic Order what was desired, in 
the following lines: 

We meet upon the Level and we part upon the Square; 
What words of precious meaning those words Masonic are! 
Come, let us contemplate them, they are worthy of a thought, 
Tu the very soul of Masonry those precious words are wrought. 

We meet upon the Level, though from every station come, 
The rich man from his mansion, and the poor man from his home : 
For the one must leave his greatness outside the Mason's door, 
While the other finds his level upon the checkered floor. 

We part upon the Square, for the world must have its due; 
We mingle with the multitude, a faithful band and true^ 
But the influence of our gatherings in Masonry is green; 
And we long upon the Level to renew the happy scene. 

There's a world where all are equal ; we are hurrying toward it fast: 
We tihall meet upon the Level there, when the gates of death ars 

pass'd ; 

We shall stand before the Orient, and our Master will be there, 
To try the blocks we offer with his own unerring Square. 


We shall meet upon the Level there, but never thence depart; 
There 's a Mansion 't is all ready for each trusting, faithful 

heart ; 

There's a Mansion and a welcome, and a multitude is there, 
Who have met upon the Level, and been tried upon the Square. 

Let us meet upon the Level, then, while laboring patient here; 
Let us meet and let us labor, though the labor be severe; 
Already in the western sky the signs bid us prepare 
To gather up our Working Tools, and part upon the Square. 

Hands round, ye faithful Masons, in the bright, fraternal chain : 
We part upon the Square below to meet in heaven again; 
what words of precious meaning those words Masonic are 

We meet upon the Level, and we part upon the Square ! 

The ways of science are beautiful. Knowledge is at- 
tained by degrees. Wisdom dwells with contemplation. 
There are we to seek her. Though the passage be diffi- 
cult, the further we proceed the easier it will come. 

If we are united, our society will flourish. Let all 
things give place to peace and good fellowship. Uniting 
in the grand design, let us be happy in ourselves, and 
endeavor to contribute to the happiness of others. Let 
us promote the useful arts, and by them mark our supe- 
riority and distinction. Let us cultivate the moral vir- 
tues, and improve in all that is good and amiable. Let 
the genius of Masonry preside over our conduct, and 
under its sovereign sway let us act with becoming dig- 
nity. Let our recreations be innocent and pursued with 
moderation. Never let us expose our character to de- 
rision. Thus shall we act in conformity with our pre- 
cepts, and support the name we have always borne, of 
being a reputable, a regular, and a uniform society. 

THE LEVEL. The pride of birth, talent, and circum- 


stances which so powerfully affect the mind of their pos- 
sessors forms the most serious obstacle with which the 
Masonic laborer has to contend. To assist him in a task 
in which so many fail, the Level is presented to him, and 
its emblematical meaning expounded. He is admonished 
that our entrance upon earth, as well as our exit, is 
humble; that the inclemencies of life equally afflict us; 
that the baleful passions of human nature know no dis- 
tinctions of rank; that sorrow, sickness, disease, and 
mental afflictions are equally distributed; that, in truth, 
all mankind do "stand upon a Level," so far as their 
relations to the Author of their being is concerned. 
These thoughts are calculated to level our pride with 
the plane on which God has designed us to move. In 
the burial service of Masonry the -reference to the Level 
is exceedingly appropriate. In the installation ceremonies 
it is said : " The Level demonstrates that we are descended 
from the same stock, partake of the same nature, and 
share the same hope; because a time will come, and the 
wisest know not how soon, when all distinctions but that 
of goodness will cease, and Death, the grand leveler of 
human greatness, reduce us to the same state." The 
remarks made upon the emblem of "the right angle, 
horizontal, and perpendicular," upon a preceding page, 
may be used here. 

The qualifications necessary to form a worthy member 
of our Order are a wise philanthropy, pure morality, in- 
violable secrecy, and a taste for the polite arts. 

I. Our Philanthropy. An ancient maxim was that 
the whole world is, in effect, a great republic, of which 
every nation is a family, and every particular person a 
child. To revive and spread abroad this maxim, drawn 


from the nature of man, is one of the ends of our es- 
tablishment. We wish to unite all men of an agreeable 
humor and enlightened understanding, not only by the 
love of the polite arts, but still more by the great prin- 
ciples of virtue. From such a union the interests of 
the Fraternity become the interests of all mankind. 
From such every nation may draw solid knowledge, and 
all the subjects of different kingdoms may unite without 
jealousy, live without disorder, and mutually love one 
another without renouncing their country. Freemasonry 
instructs in our duty to the Supreme Architect of the 
universe, to our neighbors, and to ourselves. It instructs 
us to be peaceable citizens to the civil powers, and never 
to be concerned in plots and conspiracies against the 
well-being of the nations. It teaches truth, peace, and 
concord. It bids us open our ears to the cries of the 
unfortunate, and to extend our hands to them with the 
cup of consolation. It unites men of all nations in one 
affectionate band of brotherhood. It shows us that we 
are all upon a level, and that merit is the only just dis- 
tinction. It orders us to live within compass, and al- 
ways to act upon the square with the world and with 
one another. It is not gloomy, but cheerful. It forbids 
intemperance, but encourages rational mirth and innocent 
pleasure. In short, it is a superstructure fixed with 
solid firmness on the broad basis of moral and' social 

II. Our Morality. Sound morality is the second dis- 
position required in our society. Let a man's religion 
or mode of it be what it will,, we do not exclude him 
from the benefits and advantages of oar Order, provided 
he believes in the glorious Architect of heaven and earth, 


and practices the sacred duties of morality. We are 
directed to expand our hearts with the most generous 
sentiments, to root out bigotry, and stop the cruel 
hand of persecution. We are bid to unite with virtuous 
men of the most distant countries and opposite opinions ; 
to unite with them in the firm and pleasing bond of fra- 
ternal love; to regard them with the truest affection. 

As a severe, cruel, gloomy, and unsociable philosophy 
disgusts men with virtue, we are desirous of rendering 
it amiable by the allurements of innocent pleasures, 
agreeable music, pure joy, and rational gayety. Our sen- 
timents are not what the profane world and ignorant 
vulgar imagine them to be; all the vices of the heart are 
banished from them, as well as irreligion, libertinism, ex- 
cess and debauchery. 

We banish from our Lodge every dispute which may 
tend to alter the tranquillity of the mind and gentleness 
of the manner, or to destroy those sentiments of friend- 
ship and that perfect harmony to be found only in the 
retrenching all indecent excesses and discordant pas- 

The obligations that are laid upon us are to protect 
3ur brethren by our authority, to enlighten them by our 
understanding, to edify them by our virtues, to sacrifice 
every personal resentment toward them, and diligently 
to seek for every thing that will best contribute to the 
peacej concord, and credit of our society. 

III. Our Secrecy. We have secrets among us. They 
compose a language sometimes mute and sometimes very 
eloquent, to be communicated at the greatest distance, 
and to know our brethren by, let their country or their 
language be what it may. What has scarcely happened 


to any other society has happened to us. Our Lodges 
have been established in and are now spread over all 
polite nations, and yet among so great a multitude of 
men, no brother has ever yet betrayed our secrets. Dis- 
positions the most volatile, the most indiscreet, and the 
least trained up to secrecy, learn this great science as 
soon as they enter among us. So great an empire over 
the mind has this idea of brotherly union ! This invio- 
lable secrecy powerfully contributes to link together the 
subjects of different kingdoms, and to facilitate and ren- 
der mutual between them the communication of benefits. 
We have many examples in the annals of our Order 
of brethren traveling into foreign parts, and, finding 
themselves distressed, have made themselves known to 
our Lodges and received all needful assistance. We are 
connected by solemn promises : if any one should fail in 
the solemn promises that connect us, there is no greater 
punishment than the remorse of conscience, the infamy 
of perfidy, and expulsion from our society. 

To prevent the abuses that befell the fraternities of 
Greece and Egypt, women are excluded from our Order. 
It is not that we do not pay a natural and due regard 
to that most beauteous part of the creation, or that we 
are unjust enough to look upon them as incapable of 
secrecy, but because their presence might insensibly 
alter the purity of our maxims and our manners. We 
are afraid that Love would enter with them, and draw us 
to his flowery, tempting paths, where Jealousy would dif- 
fuse his venom -through our hearts, and from affectionate 
brethren transform us into implacable rivals. 

IV. Our Taste for the Polite Arts. The fourth qual- 
ification necessary to enter into our Order is a taste for 


useful science and liberal arts of every kind. These 
improve the heart as much as the understanding. They 
moderate the selfish affections, sweeten and harmonize 
the temper, and the better fit men for social happiness, 
that happiness which Freemasonry most zealously en- 
deavors to promote. 

THE PLUMB. It only needs a glance at a " bowed 
and tottering wall," or a building inclining sensibly 
from the perpendicular, or, what is more common and 
far more painful, a human being of either sex, wandering 
from the paths of rectitude, to learn the lesson of this 
emblem. The Plumb-line seems designed by the Author 
of virtue to teach us what safety there is in truth. 

Who wears the Plumb, behold how true 
His words and walk ! and could we view 

The chambers of his soul, 
Each thought enshrined, so pure, so good, 
By the stern line of rectitude, 

Points upward to the goal. 

The Plumb admonishes us to walk uprightly in our 
several stations; to hold the scale of justice in equal 
poise; to observe the just medium between intemperance 
and pleasure, and to make our passions and prejudices 
coincide with the line of our duty. It is the interior of 
moral rectitude, teaching us to avoid dissimulation in 
conversation and action, and to direct our paths to the 
path which leads to immortality. Read here the remarks 
upon a previous page relative to the emblem of "the 
right angle, the horizontal, and the perpendicular." 

RECEPTION ON THE SQUARE. As we remarked on a 
preceding page, under the head "Theory of the Fellow 


Craft,'-' this degree is in strictness the working degree of 
the institution. All its analogies relate to labor and pil- 
grimage. The Fellow Crafts came from Phoenicia to erect 
the temples and other stately edifices of Solomon ; we en- 
gage to erect more stately edifices for our King "the 
King of kings and Lord of lords." No effort is spared to 
impress upon the Fellow Crafts that "they should eat no 
man's bread for naught;" and among r the methods em- 
ployed is the application of the Square. To try the 
works of every Mason, the Square is presented as the 
probation of his life, proving whether his works are reg- 
ular and uniform or not. 

Who wears the Square upon his breast^ 
Does in the sight of God attest, 

And in the face of man, 
That all his actions will compare 
With the Divine, the unerring Square, 

That squares great virtue's plan. 

Masons should be of one principle and one rank with- 
out the distinctions of pride and pageantry; intimating 
that from high to low the minds of Masons should be 
inclined to good works, above which no man stands ex- 
alted by his fortune. 

FAITHFUL BKEAST. The use of these three emblems is 
so natural as scarcely to require comment. Information 
upon all the inculcations of Masonry is chiefly acquired 
through the attentive ear, both the eye and the hand being 
subordinate to that. Ignorance is the secret of indo- 
lence in Masonry : the idle relish not, because they know 
aot. Though the mine is rich, they have never pene- 


trated to its bed of golden treasures. Strange that any 
men, too careless to moralize, or too stupid to discern, 
should enter the porch of Masonry only to fall asleep in 
the arms of indolence and dullness. 

It is a marked truth in the operations of Masonry, 
that he who has the instructive tongue is ever ready to 
communicate the science to those entitled to receive it. 
The genius that conducted him through the mystic temple 
inspired him with all the virtues of the institution^ The 
annals of the Order are full of the names of those whose 
ready and silvery tongue found no subjects more worthy 
to be expatiated upon than those connected with Free- 

The third of this splendid trio is the faithful breast. 
Of all societies, this has been the most distinguished for 
the inviolable secrecy which its members have preserved. 
Neither the thunders of the Vatican, nor the tortures of 
the Inquisition, nor the fierce demands of a depraved 
public opinion, have succeeded in extorting from the 
faithful breast those things so solemnly deposited there. 

HOPE. We have in no author so .good a definition of 
this emblem as that by the Apostle Paul, in his declara- 
tion "that by two immutable things, in which it was im- 
possible for God to lie, [referring to his promise and his 
oath^\ we might have a strong consolation, who have fled 
for refuge, to lay hold of the hope set before us, which 
hope we have, as an anchor of the soul, both sure and 
steadfast, and which entereth into that within the veil." 
The same eloquent writer in another passage declares: 
"We are saved by hope; if we hope for that which we 
see not, then do we with patience wait for it." The 
Psalmist has declared, " Happy is he whose hope is in the 


Lord his God." His son, the wise King, adds: "The 
righteous hath hope in his death." The Prophet Joel 
avers " the Lord will be the hope of his people, and the 
strength of the children of Israel." 

As we sit in our respective places in the Lodge, arid 
look upon the open Word in the midst, we may deem 
that there is a treasury of hopes contained in that book, 
both for this world and that which is to come. The 
dealings of God with his ancient people afford a sure 
foundation that he who is unchangeable in justice, good- 
ness, and mercy, can not fail to render to those who, by 
patient continuance in well-doing, shall merit his favor, 
all needed blessings. These are the inculcations of the 
emblem of Hope. 

JACHIN AND BOAZ. It can not be doubted that the 
most striking and attractive objects to a person approach- 
ing the Temple up Mount Moriah were the brazen Pil- 
lars upon the east. Whether to the stranger, who only 
considered them as architectural ornaments, or to the in- 
formed Israelite, who read in their names, dimensions, 
cavities, and ornaments many of the most useful incul- 
cations in his religious code, these Pillars were the first 
to catch the eye and the last to fade upon the memory. 
The height of these transcendent spires is variously given 
at eighteen and thirty-five cubits : the latter is the more 
likely, whether we estimate the due proportion between 
the diameter four cubits, or the magnitude of the great 
building before which they stood. Nothing less than 
thirty-five cubits will answer the requirements of the 
Fellow Craft's lecture, which sets the proportions between 
the heights and diameters of pillars at seven, eight, nine, 
ten, and ten for the Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, 


and Composite Orders respectively. As the particular 
order of architecture used in these Pillars is not given, 
we can not designate the exact proportion applicable; but 
to none of them will a height of eighteen cubits apply. 

The names of these grand and awe-inspiring objects 
are full of meaning to a Freemason. The right Pillar 
that is, the one on the south side of the door of entrance 
was called " Jachin;" literally, "He will establish." The 
left Pillar that is, the one on the north side of the door 
of entrance was called "Boaz;" literally, "In it is 
power." Uniting the two definitions into one, the allu- 
sion is to the Divine promise that in strength God would 
perpetually establish the kingdom of Israel in the family 
of David. This, in the Masonic system, implies the en- 
durance and strength of our institution, which at the end 
of its three thousand years of history stands more firmly 
upon its basis than ever before. 

The cavity and ornaments of the Pillars are equally 
emblematical. Upon the chapiters were nets of checker- 
work, wreaths of chain-work, seven upon each chapiter, 
also lily-work, and two hundred pomegranates in rows, 
upon each. To the instructed Israelite passing between 
the Pillars, these symbols betokened the great lessons of 
unity, peace, and plenty, and taught him that the spirit 
of unity produces peace, and that the combination of 
unity . and peace is divinely blessed to plenty. The 
globes or pommels upon the chapiters, with their 
proper scientific teachings, conveyed also the Masonic 
meaning, expressed upon a previous page, that the 
charities of Freemasons should be as boundless as the 

THE ANGLE OF 90. The application of the right 


angle to the center of the earth illustrates the sphere of 
the Mason's duty and the restraints which he should 
impose upon the inclinations of his heart, not to wander 
beyond the angular limits of Masonic propriety. Upon 
the Angle of 90 the Fellow Craft, metaphorically, is 
tried, and happy he whose life and conduct shall bear so 
rigid a test. A very small deviation from this angle, 
though it may not be perceptible to man, is .distinctly so 
to God, who is our Divine Master, and is to reward us 
not merely according to the amount of our works, but 
according to the accuracy with which they adapt them- 
selves to the angle he has traced out for us. It may 
be that the heathen and the uncultivated denizens of the 
isles are not prescribed by an Angle so broad as that 
which is presented to us. God is merciful, and will not 
place upon any person more responsibilities than he has 
moral strength to bear; but to us who, in addition to 
the light of civilization, the Bible and Christianity have 
the brilliancy of Freemasonry shining within our souls, 
it is hard to see what excuse we can present our Heav- 
enly Master in the Judgement-day for a ^deficiency in 
the angular propriety of our lives. The Angle of 90 is 
emphatically one of the working tools of our profession; 
let us see that it is not less so of our practice. 


THE Second Section of the Fellow Craft's Lecture 
treats of the entrance into the Middle Chamber of the 
Temple; the objects that attract the candidate's atten- 
tion there; the duty of a reasonable observance of the 
Sabbath-day; the numerous and valuable studies recom- 


mended to his mind; the rich and ample wages secured 
him for his labor, and the solemn reverence due from 
Masons unto the name of God. Properly delivered, this 
is the most dramatic and beautiful ceremony yet treated 
upon in this volume. It fully justifies us in claiming 
for this grade of Masonry that it particularizes circum- 
stances of great importance to the Fraternity, and con- 
firms many of our traditional tenets and customs by 
sacred and profane record. There is a store of valuable 
knowledge developed from this lecture, founded on 
reason, tradition, and the Sacred Record, both enter- 
taining and instructive. 

quent use in this volume of the terms " Operative " and 
"Speculative" requires an explanation. To the mem- 
bers of this institution was anciently given the erection 
of all great edifices. The secrets of architecture were 
then parts of the secrets of Freemasonry, and none could 
undertake a temple, a palace, or other grand erection, 
until he had passed the portals of the Masonic Lodge 
and acquired the scientific knowledge there treasured 
up. Then Operative and Speculative Masonry were 
blended; those who built the actual temple also built 
the moral one. But through the lapse of ages, the se- 
crets of operative architecture have been given out to 
the world, leaving only the mysteries of the moral build- 
ing. Speculative Masonry, therefore, contemplates in 
theory what the operative builder reduces to practice, 
and the tools of the workmen are only used as emblems 
in the construction of " the house not made with hands, 
eternal in the heavens." In this thought the following 
lines are conceived : 


Darkly hid beneath the quarry, 

Masons, many a true block lies ; 
Hands must shape and hands must carry, 
Ere the stone the Master prize. 
Seek for it, measure it, 
Fashion it, polish it, 
Then the Overseer will prize. 

What though shapeless, rough, and heavy, 

Think ye God his work will lose ? 
Raise the block, the strength he gave ye, 
Fit it for the Master's use. 
S-eek for it, measure it, 
Fashion it, polish it, 
Then the Overseer will use. 

'T was for this our fathers banded; 

Through life's quarries they did roam, 
Faithful-hearted, skillful-handed, 
Bearing many a true block home: 
Noticing, measuring, 
Fashioning, polishing, 
For their glorious Temple-home. 

of all things has put it on record that he would have his 
creatures give the seventh day of each week wholly to 
him and his service, thus commemorating the great fact 
of the creation, this has been adopted among the land- 
marks of our institution. It is the oldest of all observ- 
ances, this day being consecrated in the first division of 
time after the creation. The Almighty Maker selected 
it for his own period of refreshment and rest after the 
completion of his labors, and we in like manner give 
the hours to bodily rest and the refreshment of the soul. 
No Lodge may lawfully meet to work upon the Sabbath- 


day, and no brother give of its sacred time to his ordi- 
nary pursuits. 

The title given to the Jewish day of rest was "the 
Sabbath;" it is from a Hebrew word signifying rest. 
Since the Christian era, the day of rest is called the 
Lord's Day, because it is now commemorative of Christ's 
resurrection from the dead; and there is thus connected 
with it an affectionate remembrance of the whole char- 
acter and offices of Him to whose service and glory it 
is to be devoted. Sunday was the name given by the 
heathens to the first day of the week, because it was the 
day on which they worshiped the sun, and this name,^ 
together with those of the other days of the week, has 
been continued to our times. 

The sanctification of one-seventh portion of time by 
man is regarded throughout the whole of the Old Testa- 
ment Scriptures as a fundamental principle of duty, and 
no sin, except perhaps idolatry, is threatened with heavier 
penalties than Sabbath-breaking. 

The Divine commandment which stands the fourth in 
the Decalogue, " Remember the Sabbath-day to keep it 
holy," is founded on the fact that the seventh day was 
blessed and hallowed by God himself, and that he re- 
quires his creatures to keep it holy to him. This com- 
mandment is of universal and perpetual obligation. The 
object to be accomplished by the institution is general, 
and applies to all people every-where with like force. 
Wherever there is a human creature capable of contem- 
plating the character of the Supreme Being, of studying 
his revealed will, and of considering his own immortal 
destiny, this commandment requires him to consecrate 
at least one-seventh part of his time to these holy pur- 


poses. The terms of the commandment do not fix the 
precise day in order, except that it is to be every seventh 
day. Tn other words, it simply requires that after six 
days of labor, one day is to be given to rest. 

There is abundant evidence from history that the 
seventh day of the week has been observed from the 
earliest times as a day of rest; and the change from 
the seventh to the first day does not in any degree 
change or impair the obligation to sanctify a seventh 
portion of our time. So far from it, the sacredness and 
glory of the day are much increased by its association 
with that great event on which our hope of life and im- 
mortality entirely depends. 

It seems to be admitted, by intelligent men of every 
class and profession, that the observance of a w r eekly 
day of rest is as essential to our intellectual and physical 
as to our moral and spiritual nature. 

The simple rule as to the mode of observing the day 
seems to be this: that there should be a cheerful resting 
all the day' from such worldly employments and recrea- 
tions as may be lawful on other days, and the spending 
the whole time in the public or private worship of God, 
except so much as may be occupied by works of neces- 
sity or mercy. To test the propriety of any act or pur- 
suit on that day, it is only needful to inquire whether 
the doing of it will tend to advance us in holy exercises 
and affection, and in preparation for the heavenly rest, or 
whether it is an act of necessity which can not be post- 
poned without serious injury. 

THREE, FIVE, AND SEVEN. Mystical numbers form 
important parts in the symbolisms of Freemasonry. The 
numbers three, five, and seven are the most suggestive 


of these. Scriptural history shows how frequently they 
were introduced in sacred events. 

" There are three that bear record in heaven : the 
Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost, and these three 
are one." This passage expresses the whole theory of 
the Masonic trinity. The three principal officers of the 
Lodge, corresponding with the three original degrees in 
Masonry, are examples of the uses to which this number 
is applied. 

The number five is not less suggestive in the Masonic 
rituals. There are five orders in architecture that are 
recognized among Freemasons: the Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, 
Corinthian, and Composite, of which the three central 
ones are most highly esteemed in speculative Masonry. 
There are five senses in human nature : hearing, seeing, 
touching, smelling, and tasting, of which the first three 
are so highly estimated in the Masonic system, that no 
person w r ho has lost any one of them can lawfully be 
made a Mason. Among the furniture of the sanctuary 
and the temple, there were five golden candlesticks on 
either side of the oracle. 

The number seven has even more numerous allusions 
in the rituals. There are seven liberal arts and sciences 
inculcated in the Masonic system ; viz. : grammar, rhet- 
oric, logic, arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy, 
of which the fifth, generally, is most highly estimated. 
There are seven days in the w r eek; the seventh year was 
anciently directed to be a sabbath of rest for all things, 
and the law was directed to be read to the people. A 
person was commanded to forgive his offending brother 
seven times, which our Savior extended to seventy 
times seven. In the sacrificial service the blood was 


sprinkled seven times before the altar. Solomon, in his 
allegory of the house of wisdom, says that it has seven 
pillars. Seven resurrections are enumerated in Scrip- 
ture. The series of celestial worlds is said to consist 
of seven, of which the highest is the most beatific. The 
book of Revelations, the most symbolical series of writ- 
ings extant, embodies nearly all its mysteries under the 
number seven as seven churches, seven golden candle- 
sticks, seven stars, seven lamps representing the seven 
spirits, the book with seven seals, the seven kings, seven 
thunders, the dragon with seven heads and seven crowns, 
seven angels bringing seven plagues, and seven vials of 
wrath* In our lectures, perfection is likened to gold 
seven times purified in the fire. 

In the application of these numbers in the Fellow 
Craft's ritual, lengthy and beautiful discourses upon the 
Order in architecture and the seven liberal arts and 
sciences are delivered, which, being found in the Mon- 
itor, need no repetition here. 

THE EAR OF CORN. Much may be said of the ex- 
pressiveness of this emblem, suspended, in all Well-ar- 
ranged Lodges, over the Junior Warden's chair. As the 
contiguity of a fall of water to a field of standing corn 
gives vigor to the plant, so the graces of the Divine 
Spirit give nourishment to the good man's piety, and 
make it fruitful. The Scriptural light thrown upon this 
emblem is that in the eleventh chapter of Judges. Fifty- 
one years after the celebrated exploit of Gideon at the 
well Harod, the Ammonites came out of their deserts 
eastward, and invaded Palestine in great numbers. A 
part of them came up into Gilead and encamped at 
Aroer. Jephthah, whose residence was at Mizpeh, near 
5 . 


by, collected together an army from the surrounding 
tribes, attacked the Ammonites, achieved a great victory, 
and rescued twenty cities from their hands which they 
had taken. By this heroic deed the country was rid of 
its oppressors. On Jephthah's return home occurred 
that pathetic tragedy which has made the name of Jeph- 
thah's daughter immortal in prose and song. 

Shortly afterward the Ephraitnites, whose tribe was 
located on the opposite side of the river westward, taking 
bitter offense at Jephthah for slighting them in his call 
for soldiers, or, what is more likely, angry that they 
were omitted in the distribution of the spoils, crossed the 
river with a great army and threatened his destruction. 
Jephthah was in no .whit intimidated, but at once recalled 
his warriors from their homes, and defeated the Ephraim- 
ites. Resolved to punish them for their unprovoked 
assault, he sent portions of his army to the fords in 
their rear, and intercepting them, slew all who attempted 
to pass, to the number of forty-two thousand. This was 
a blow which that haughty tribe never forgot. 

As a measure for identifying the Ephraimites at the 
fords, an ear of corn was hung upon a branch and each 
traveler was requested to give its name. The proper 
word in Hebrew for an ear of corn is " Shibboleth," so 
pronounced in the pure language. But the Ephraimites, 
having a patois of their own, were unable thus to express 
the first syllable. They called it "Sibboleth," just as 
the Arabs pronounce the same word to the present day. 
Their defect of utterance was fatal to them, for every 
man who thus named the ear of corn was summarily 

In relation to this singular transaction, which in the 


vituals of the Fellow Craft plays a prominent part, a 
celebrated English writer of the last century says: "The 
application which is made of certain words among Ma- 
sons is as a testimony of their retaining their original 
one uninfringed, and their first faith with the brother- 
hood uncorrupted. And to render their words and 
phrases more abstruse and secure, they selected such as 
by acceptation in the Scriptures or otherwise might puz- 
zle the ignorant by a double implication. Thus, ' Shib- 
boleth/ should we have adopted the Eleusonian mys- 
teries, would answer as an avowal of our profession, the 
word implying * ears of corn. 3 But taking its deriva- 
tive from the Greek tongue, it is equivalent to ' Colo 
lapidem/ implying that we retain and keep inviolate our 
obligations as the 'Jurimentum per jovem lapidem/ 
the most obligatory oath held among the heathens." 

THE LETTER G. A brother entering the Lodge while 
at work, has his attention turned first to the emblems 
upon the Altar, of which one is the immortal Word of 
God, and next to an object suspended over the Master's 
Chair, an emblem of the letter G. This is the initial let- 
ter of the name of Deity, that Being before whom Ma- 
sons of every degree bow and adore. The full bearing 
of this emblem is conveyed in the following lines : 

That Name ! I heard it at my mother's knee, 
When looking up, the dear, remembered face 

Beaming on mine, so fond, so tenderly, 

She prayed that GOD her little son would bless. 

That Name! I spoke it when I entered here, 
And bowed the knee, as man in worship must; 

From my heart's center, with sincerity, 
I cried aloud, "In GOD is all my trust." 


That Name! I saw it o'er the Master's chair. 

The "Hieroglyphic bright," and bending low, 
Paid solemn homage to the symbol there 

That speaks of GOD, before whom all should bow. 

That Name! I whispered at the Altar here, 

When dangers thickened, and when death was nigh; 

In solemn silence, and with soul sincere, 
I prayed, " GOD be with me, if I die ! " 

That Name ! the last upon my faltering tongue, 
Ere death shall seal it, it shall surely be ; 

The pass-word to the bright, angelic throng, 
Whose GOD is GOD to all eternity. 

That Name then, brothers, ever gently speak, 
Above all father's, mother's name, revered ; 

What bounties from His gracious hand we take ! 
0, be His honor to our s6uls endeared. 

CORN, WINE, AND OIL. The bounties of our Heavenly 
Father have supplied us, while we sojourn below,. with 
all necessary comforts of food, shelter, and clothing. 
The earth abundantly yields them to the industrious 
laborer; from our mother's breast we pass to the yield- 
ing sources of the soil. The emblem of corn, implying 
all the nutritious fruits of the earth ; the emblem of wine, 
implying all that nature affords to gladden the heart, 
and the emblem of oz7, which to Oriental nations is quite 
as important as the others, represent nature's bounties, 
the wages of practical labor. King Solomon stipulated 
to pay the Temple-builders, for their service, " twenty 
thousand measures of beaten wheat and twenty thousand 
measures of barley, and twenty thousand baths of wine 
and twenty thousand baths of oil." Thus bo.untifullj 
did that large-hearted monarch provide for those \vh 


should do him service in his erections for God. Shall 
we not have as bountiful returns for our labor ? Toiling 
in the nobler system of architecture, the building up of 
the 4iuman soul, and laboring under the supervision of 
the Supreme Architect of the Universe, let us not doubt 
the liberality of our Master or the certainty of ample 
reward. Plenty, health, and peace wait upon them that 
do the works of God. 

THE PERFECT ASHLARS. The spirit of this whole sec- 
tion is conveyed in the following lines : 

The sunbeams from the eastern sky 
Flash from yon blocks exalted high, 

And on their polished fronts proclaim 
The framer and the. builder's fame. 

Glowing beneath the fervid noon, 
Yon marble dares the southern sun; 

Yet tells that wall of fervid flame, 
The framer and the builder's fame. 

The chastened sun adown the west, 

Speaks the same voice and sinks to rest; 

No sad defect, no flaw to shame 
The framer and the builder's fame. 

Beneath the dewy night, the sky 

Lights up ten thousand lamps on high; 

Ten thousand lamps unite to name 
The framer and the builder's fame. 

Perfect in line, exact in square, 

These Ashlars of the Craftsmen are; 

They will to comvng time proclaim 
The framer and the builder's fame. 


The best specimen of a Perfect Ashlar presented in 
the Masonic ranks, in this country, is George Washing- 
ton. He was indeed a paragon in Freemasonry, an ex- 
emplar of its virtues and its graces. There is no degree 
of, moral improvement suggested by Masonic teachings- 
to which he did not aspire, and few to which he had not 
attained. His life as a citizen, a statesman, and a pa- 
triot, the wbrld has by heart; his career as a Freemason 
is not less w r orthy of admiration and respect. In the 
pressure of a long and doubtful war, when his faculties 
were concentrated in the never-ceasing details of com- 
mand, he was ever ready to turn his thoughts to the 
claims of a distressed, worthy brother, prompt to attend 
Lodge meetings, happy to .respond to Masonic cour- 

The bust or portrait of Washington should be placed 
conspicuously in every Lodge-room. Not only should 
we become familiar with those majestic features at our 
dwellings, but, in conjunction, with the emblems of the 
Lodge, they should appear the brightest and most sig- 
nificant emblem of them all. 


DEATH, thy hand is weighty on the breast 

Of him who lies within thy grasp ! 
No power can raise the captive from his rest 

Whom thy strong hand doth clasp. 

The tears of broken hearts do fall in vain : 
Their sighs are wasted o'er the grave; 

Thou laugh'st to scorn the solemn funeral strain, 
For there is none to save. 

From age to age, mankind hath owned thy sway- 
Submissive bowed beneath thy hand; 

The hoary head, the infant of a day, 
The loveliest of the band. 

And thou hast struck the true and faithful now, 

The model of Masonic faith ; 
It was a cruel and a dastard blow, 

stern, unyielding death! 

Yet, boastful monster, ye shall have release, 

Thy weighty hand, relentless power, 
Shall be withdrawn, and all thy mockings cease, 

And all thy triumphs o'er. 

The Lion of the Tribe of Judah comes 

See in the heavenly east the sign ! 
To rend the sepulchers, disclose the tombs, 

And place thee, monster, in 1 




THE Degree of Master Mason is suggestive of gov- 
ernment over men. The Apprentice and the Fellow 
Craft draw the materials from quarry and forest, shape 
them, remove them to the places designed for them, and 
raise them to the wall: this is physical labor. All this 
requires a designing head, a draughtsman, and a superin- 
tendent, and this is the Master Mason. The same ne- 
cessity exists in Speculative or Moral Masonry. 

To the Master Mason were intrusted the secrets of 
architecture, plans, measurements, and estimates, the 
weight, tenacity, and durability of materials, and all that 
learning needful to transform rude stones and the trunks 
of trees into edifices that should be the wonder and de- 
light of the earth. With such transcendent privileges 
there was coupled a heavy burden of covenants, and he 
was expected to exemplify before his fellow-laborers 
every virtue and grace symbolized on the Trestle-Board 
of the Master Builder. 


A late writer has elegantly said : We have seen the 
type of man complete in moral worth and intellectual 
culture. What more is left? Communion with ^ his 
Maker. The mere knowledge of Deity is that of our 
august Creator, whom we are to reverence and in whom 
alone we are to put our trust. But we have not yet 
seen Him walking upon the earth and holding open com- 
munion with the sons of men. Man has not been enno- 
bled by personal contact with the All-Holy. Let us 
suppose three brethren, types respectively of moral, in- 
tellectual, and physical perfection, joined together in 
holy fellowship, which should make their very souls as 
one, might they not in mystic union call upon the great 
and sacred name of Deity and receive an answer to their 
prayer ? That such an idea did prevail, we have suffi- 
cient proof, and it is to this, rather than to any mere 
utilitarian views, that we are to look for the rule which, 
in a purely speculative institution, so sternly demands 
physical as well as moral and intellectual integrity. 

The Degree of Master Mason is a type of the com- 
munion of man with God. Long before the incarnation 
of that great Being was the hope entertained of seeing 
Him with mortal eyes, and no exertions were deemed 
too great to insure that consummation. With us these 
ideas are but a type, for we have that realization so 
longed for by the brethren of old. And yet, as a 
type, how interesting it is to look back upon their 
struggles to look forward into what is now so bright 
and clear ! 

We now find man complete in morality and intelli- 
gence, with the story of religion added, to insure him of 
the protection of the Deity, and guard him against ever 


going astray. These three degrees thus form a perfect 
and harmonious whole. 

THE COMPASS. The use of the Compass, whose beau- 
tiful allegory was explained in a preceding grade, is 
peculiarly adapted to the present Degree. Within its 
extreme points, when properly extended, are found the 
grand principles of Friendship, Morality, and Brotherly 
Love. No subject can more properly engage the atten- 
tion than the humane and generous feelings planted by 
nature in the human breast. Friendship is traced 
through the circle of private connections to the grand 
system of universal philanthropy, but the Brotherly 
Love so well known to the Masonic family is one of the 
purest emanations of earthly friendship. A community 
of sentiment and feeling creates a community of interest, 
cultivated and cherished by every brother. 

Morality is practical virtue, of which so much is said 
in the preceding degrees. It is the journey of Wisdom, 
pursuing and disseminating happiness. It is no cold 
speculation, but a living principle. Saint John, himself 
one of the purest exemplars of these three virtues, has 
left it on record, that if a man say, I love God, and 
hateth his brother, lie is a liar; for he that loveth not 
his brother, whom he hath seen, how can he love God, 
whom he hath not seen? Beloved, if God so loved us, 
ve ought also to love one another; and this command- 
ment have we from Him, That he who loveth God, love 
his brother also. So sings the Masonic lyrist : 

By one God created, by one Savior saved, 
By one Spirit lighted, with one mark engraved, 
We learn through the wisdom our spirits approve, 
To cherish the spirit of Brotherly Love. 


In the land of the stranger we Masons abide, 
In forest, in quarry, on Lebanon's side; 
Yon Temple we build it, its plan 's from above, 
And we labor supported by Brotherly Love. 

Though the service be hard, and the wages be scant, 
If the Master accept it, our hearts are content; 
The prize that we toil for, we '11 have it above, 
When the Temple's completed, in Brotherly Love. 

Yes, yes, though the week may be long, it will end; 
Though the Temple be lofty, the key-stone will stand; 
And the Sabbath, blest day, every thought will remove, 
Save the memory fraternal of Brotherly Love. 

THE ALTAR. The sacrifices made upon the Masonic 
Altar are the bloodless offerings of the soul. David 
describes them when he says, "The sacrifices of God 
are a broken spirit; a broken and a contrite heart, 
God, thou wilt not despise." These may be individual- 
ized as sacrifices of our own will, of feelings of contempt, 
anger, and hatred; of tale-bearing and indiscretion; of 
selfishness and the indulgence of our passions. Such 
are the offerings made upon the open Law and in front 
of the emblem of the letter G. 

Friendship, on wing etherial flying round, 
Stretches her arm to bless the hallowed ground; 
Humanity, well pleased, here takes her stand, 
Holding her daughter, Pity, by the hand; 
Here Charity, which soothed the widow's sigh, 
And wipes the dew-drop from the orphan's eye; 
Here stands Benevolence, whose large embrace 
Uncircumscribed takes in the human race; 
She sees each narrow tie, each private end, 
Indignant, Virtue's universal friend; 
Scorning each frantic zealot, bigot tool, 
She stamps on Masons' breasts her Golden Rule. 


THE TROWEL. The Master Mason is not restricted to 
a single implement, or set of implements, for his mystic 
work; but the most appropriate tool in his department 
is the Trowel the emblem of peace used to spread the 
cement of brotherly love and affection ; that cement 
which unites us into one sacred band or society of 
friends and brothers, amongst whom no contention 
should ever exist save that noble contention, or rather 
emulation, of who best can work and best agree. The 
parts of a building can not be united without proper ce- 
ment; no more can the social compact be maintained 
without the binding influence of love. 

CHARITY. So much has been said in other pages of 
this volume upon Charity, or more properly Love, that 
it would be superfluous to enlarge further upon this sub- 
ject. No one has so clearly defined it as the Apostle 
who so thoroughly experienced it, the Evangelist John. 
His soul was filled with this divine emanation when he 
wrote, "He that loveth his brother abideth in the light, 
and there is none occasion of stumbling in him." "We 
know that we have passed from death unto life, because 
we love the brethren." "Let us not love in word, 
neither in tongue, but in deed and truth." "Brethren, 
let us love one another, for love is of God, and every one 
that loveth is born of God and honoreth God. He that 
loveth not, honoreth not God, for God is love." "Breth- 
ren, if God so loved us, we ought also to love one 

Under the term " Charity," the Apostle Paul, in a 
masterly summing-up of the subject, writes: "Though I 
speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and though 
I have the gift of prophesy, and understand all mysteries 


and all knowledge, and though I bestow all iny goods to 
feed the poor, and though I give my body to be burned, 
and have not charity, it profiteth me nothing. And now 
abideth Faith, Hope, Charity, these three ; but the great- 
est of these is Charity." 

PRAYER. The posture of bended knees is often al- 
luded to in Scripture. Solomon kneeled down upon his 
knees before the congregation of Israel, and spread forth 
his hands toward heaven. Ezra says, "I fell on my 
knees, and spread out my hands unto the Lord my God." 
Daniel kneeled on his knees three times a day and 
prayed. Paul says, "I bow my knees unto the Father." 

As an appropriate form of Lodge prayer, in w r hich 
Masons of all persuasions can unite without compromise 
of religious principle, the one entitled the Lord's Prayer 
is the most perfect: "Our Father which art in heaven, 
hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will 
be done in earth, as it is in heaven. Give us this day 
our daily bread. And forgive us our debts, as we for- 
give our debtors. And lead us not into temptation, but 
deliver us from evil. For thine is the kingdom, and the 
power, and the glory, forever. Amen." 


When the Spirit came to Jephthah, 

Animating his great heart, 
He arose, put on his armor, 

Girt his loins about to part; 
Bowed the knee, implored a blessing, 

Gave an earnest of his faith, 
Then, divinely-strung, departed, 

Set for victory or death. 


If a rude, uncultured soldier 

Thus dre\v wisdom from above, 
How should we, enlightened laborers, 

Children of the Sire of Love 
How should we, who know " the wisdom, 

Gentle, pure, and peaceable," 
Make a prayerful preparation, 

That our work be square and full ! 

Lo, the future! One can read it! 

He its darkest chance can bend. 
Lo, our wants ! how great, how many ! 

He abundant means can lend. 
Kaise your hearts, then, laborers, boldly, 

Build and journey in his trust; 
Square your deeds by precepts holy, 

And the end is surely blest. 

Vainly will the Builders labor 

If the Overseer is gone ; . 
Vainly gate and wall are guarded 

If the All-seeing is withdrawn: 
Only is successful ending 

When the work's begun with care; 
Lay your blocks, then, laborers, strongly, 

On the Eternal Rock of Prayer! 


THE Second Section is devoted to that combination of 
duties implied under the figure of " The Five Points of 
Fellowship ; " likewise to the most expressive arrangement 
of Masonic emblems, " The Broken Column." These two 
subjects, inserted in the the center of the Master's lecture, 
form in truth the very heart of the matter, and no Mason 
can be esteemed well instructed who does not familiarize 


himself with them. This section recites the historical 
tradition of the Order, and presents to view a picture of 
great moral sublimity. It recites the legend, the symbol- 
ical interpretation of which testifies our faith in the resur- 
rection of the body and the immortality of the soul; while 
it also exemplifies an instance of integrity and firmness 
seldom equaled, and never surpassed. 

succinctly declare that the Master Mason should not 
withdraw his hand from a sinking brother; that his foot 
should never halt in the pursuit of duty ; that his prayers 
should unceasingly ascend for the distressed; that his 
faithful heart should equally conceal the secrets and the 
faults of a brother.; and that approaching evil should be 
averted by a friendly admonition. The same thought is 
more elaborately conveyed in the following, from an 
author of the last generation : 

I. When the necessities of a brother call for my aid 
and support, I will be ever ready to lend him such assist- 
ance, to save him from sinking, as may not be detrimental 
to myself or connection, if I find him worthy thereof. 

II. Indolence shall not cause my footsteps to halt nor 
wrath turn them aside ; but, forgetting every selfish con- 
sideration, I will be swift of foot to serve, help, and ex- 
ecute benevolence to a fellow-creature in distress, and 
more particularly to a brother Mason. 

III. When I offer up my ejaculations to Almighty 
God, I will remember a brother's welfare as my own ; 
for as the voice of babes and sucklings ascends to the 
Throne of Grace, so most assuredly will the breathings 
of a fervent heart arise to the mansions of bliss, as our 
prayers are certainly required of one another. 


IV. A brother's secrets, delivered to me as such, I will 
keep as I would my own ; as betraying that trust might 
be doing him the greatest injury he could sustain in this 
mortal life. Nay, it would be like the villainy of an as- 
sassin who lurks in darkness to stab his adversary when 
unarmed and least prepared to meet an enemy. 

V. A brother's character I will support in his absence 
as I would in his presence. I will not wrongfully revile 
him myself, nor will I suffer it to be done by others, if 
in my power to prevent it. Thus by the Five Points 
of Fellowship are we linked together in an indivisible 
chain of sincere affection, brotherly love, relief, and 

Another and even more beautiful comment upon the 
Five Points of Fellowship is the following : 

I. When the calamities of our brother call for our aid, 
we should not withdraw the hand that might sustain 
him from sinking, but should render him those services 
which, while they do not encumber or injure our families 
or fortunes, charity and religion may dictate for the sav- 
ing of our fellow-creature. 

II. From which purpose indolence should not persuade 
the foot to halt, or wrath turn our steps out of the way; 
but, forgetting injuries and selfish feelings, and remember- 
ing that man was born for the aid of his generation and 
not for his own enjoyments only, but to do that which 
is good, we should be swift to have mercy, to save, to 
strengthen, and 'execute benevolence. 

III. As the good things of this life are partially dis- 
pensed, and some persons are opulent while others are 
in distress, such principles always enjoin a Mason, be he 
ever so poor, to testify his good-will toward his brother. 



Riches alone do not allow the means of doing good. 
Virtue and benevolence are not confined to the walls of 
opulence. The rich man from his many talents is re- 
quired to make extensive works, under the principles of 
virtue. And yet poverty is no excuse for an omission 
of that exercise; for, as the cry of innocence .ascendeth 
up to heaven, as the voice of babes and sucklings reaches 
the throne of God, and as the breathings of a contrite 
heart are heard in heaven, so a Mason's prayers for the 
welfare of his brother are required of him. 

IV. The fourth principle is, never, to injure the -con- 
fidence of your brother by revealing his secrets, for 
perhaps that were to rob him of the guard that pro- 
tects bis property or his life. The tongue of a Mason 
should be without guile and void of offense, speaking 
truth with discretion, and keeping itself within the rule 
of judgment, maintaining a "heart free of uncharitable- 
ness, locking up secrets, and communing in charity and 

V. As much is required of a Mason in the way of 
gifts as discretion may limit. Charity begins at home, 
but, like a fruitful olive-tree planted by the side of a 
fountain whose boughs overshoot the wall, so is charity. 
It spreads its arms abroad from the strength and opu- 
lence of its station, and lendeth its shade for the repose 
and relief of those who are gathered under its branches. 
Charity, when given with imprudence, is no longer a vir- 
tue; but when flowing from abundance, it is glorious as 
the beama of morning, in whose beauty thousands rejoice. 
When donations extorted by piety are detrimental to a 
man's family, they become sacrifices to superstition, and, 
like incense to idols, are disapproved by Heaven. 


THE BROKEN COLUMN. The Broken Column support- 
ing the volume of Divine inspiration; a virgin, of match- 
less beauty, weeping, supporting in her left hand a 
funeral urn, commemorative of the departed, and in her 
right hand a sprig of evergreen ; Time, the great leveler 
and restorer, entwining her disheveled locks in his 
fingers this is the array of symbols now presented to 
the admiring eyes of the candidate. They are calculated 
to awaken every sentiment of respect, veneration, and 
fraternal tenderness on the one hand, and on the other 
to remind us, that although time may lay all earthly 
grandeur in ruins and deface the loveliness of all terres- 
trial beauty, yet there is imperishable grandeur joined 
to unfading beauty and eternal happiness in the world 
beyond the grave. 

'T is done the dark decree is said, 

That called our friend away ; 
Submissive bow the sorrowing head, 

And bend the lowly knee. 
We will not ask why God has broke 

Our Pillar from its stone, 
But humbly yield us to the stroke, 

And say " His will be done." 

At last the weary head has sought 

In earth its long repose; 
And weeping freres have hither brought 

Their chieftain to his close. 
We held his hand, we filled his heart, 

While heart and hand could move, 
Nor will we from his grave depart 

But with the rites of love. 

This grave shall be a garner, where 
We'll heap our golden corn; 


And here, in heart, we '11 oft repair, 

To think of him that's gone; 
To speak of all he did and said, 

That's wise, and good, and pure, 
And covenant o'er the hopeful dead, 

In vows that will endure. 

Brother, bright and loving frere, 

spirit free and pure, 
Breathe us one gush of spirit #ir, 

From off the Heavenly shore ; 
And say, when these hard toils are done, 

And the Grand Master calls, 
Is there for every weary one 

Place in the heavenly halls! 

THE UNFINISHED TEMPLE. The Temple of Masonry 
is ever in course of construction, ever unfinished. Into 
its walls successive generations of the wise and good are 
built ; and while time lasts, and the end of all things is 
delayed, the moral structure is incomplete. But we 
need not fear its walls will crumble, or that the work 
will ever cease. The other societies of this world, em- 
pires, kingdoms, and commonwealths, being of less per- 
fect constitutions, have been of less permanent duration. 
Although men have busied themselves through all ages 
in forming and reforming them, in casting down and 
building up, yet still their labors have been vain. The 
reason was hear it and be wise, ye builders of the pres- 
ent day ! tliey daubed with uniempered mortar ; they ad- 
mitted into their structures the base, discordant, hetero- 
geneous materials of pride, ambition, selfishness, malice, 
guile, hypocrisies, envious and evil speaking, which Free- 
masonry rejects. Hence their fabrics, unable to sup- 
port themselves, tumbled to the foundation through 


inherent weakness, or were shaken to pieces by external 

The Egyptian, the Babylonian, the Assyrian, the Per- 
sian Empires, the commonwealths of Athens, Sparta, 
and Rome, with many more of later date, where are 
they now? "Fallen, fallen, fallen," the weeping voice 
of history replies. The meteors of our age, the gaze of 
the world, they rose, they blazed awhile on high, they 
burst and sunk beneath the horizon, to that place of 
oblivion where the pale ghosts of departed grandeur fly 
about in sad lamentations for their former glory. 

Such have been the changes and revolutions which, as 
a Fraternity, we have seen. From the bosom of the 
Lodge, seated upon an eminence, its foundations reach- 
ing the center and its summits the sky, we have beheld, 
as upon a turbulent ocean at an immense distance be- 
neath us, the states of this world alternately mounted 
up and cast down, as they have regarded or neglected 
the principles described above, while, supported by them, 
the sublime fabric of our constitution has remained un- 
shaken through ages. And thug supported it shall remain 
while the sun opens the day to gild its cloud-capped 
towers, or the moon leads in the night to checker its 
starry canopy. The current of things may roll along 
its basis, the tide of chance and time may beat against 
its walls, the stormy gusts of malice may assault its 
lofty battlements, and the heavy rains of calumny may 
descend upon its spacious roof, but all in vain. A 
building thus constructed and supported is impregnable 
from without, and can then only be dissolved when the 
pillars of the universe shall be shaken, and " the great 
globe itself, yea, all which we inherit, shall, like the 


baseless fabric of a vision," pass away at the fiat of the 
Master Architect. 


DEAD! and where now those earnest, loving eyes, 
Which kindled in so many eyes the light? 

Have they departed from our earthly skies, 
And left no rays to illuminate the night ? 

Dead! and where now that hand of sympathy 

That welled, and yearned, and with true love o'erflowed? 

heart of love, is the rich treasure" dry ? 

Forever sealed what once such gifts bestowed ? 

Dead! and where now that generous, nervous hand, 
That thrilled each nerve within its generous clasp? 

Will it no more enlink the Mystic band, 

Hallowing and strengthening all within its grasp ? 

Heart, eyes, and hand to dust are all consigned ; 

It was his lot, for he was born of earth : 
But the rich treasures of his Master-mind 

Abide in heaven, for there they had their birth. 

Abide in heaven ! 0, the enkindling trust! 

The record of his deeds remaineth here: 
The Acacia blooms beside his silent dust, 

And points unerringly the brighter sphere. 

Then, though the Shattered Column mark his fate, 
And Weeping Virgin weep the Unfinished Fane. 

Not altogether are we desolate : 

For 0, beloved Friend, we meet again 1 



THIS Section is chiefly devoted to the explanation of 
the hieroglyphical emblems peculiar to this Degree. As 
usually given, it presents many useful particulars rela- 
tive to King Solomon's Temple, a portion of which, in 
the present volume, are, for convenience sake, transferred 
to other pages. In the richness of its imagery, this 
Section resembles the Third Section of the Degree of 
Entered Apprentice. 

the three Pillars in this section alludes to the three im- 
mortal artists who contrived, strengthened, and adorned 
the sacred Fane. Solomon, King of Israel, first in wis- 
dom, in wealth, in favor with God and man, stands as 
the Pillar of Wisdom. " His wisdom excelled/' says the 
inspired historian, "the wisdom of all the children of the 
east country and all the wisdom of Egypt. For he was 
wiser than all men; than Ethan the Ezrahite, and He- 
man and Chalcor and Darda, the sons of Mahal. He 
spoke three thousand proverbs, and his songs were a 
thousand and five, and he spoke of trees from the cedar 
tree, that is in Lebanon, even unto the hyssop that 
springeth out of the wall ; he spoke also of beasts and 
of fowls and of creeping things and of fishes." This is 
all summed up in this passage: "God gave Solomon 
wisdom and understanding exceeding much, and large- 
ness of heart even as the sand that is upon the sea- 
shore." This was our Pillar of Wisdom. 

Our Pillar of Strength was Hiram, King of Phoenicia, 
a nation of architects and mariners, whose furnishing of 
skillful builders and choice materials gave to King Solo- 
mon all the support necessary for his undertaking. 


Our Pillar of Beauty was Hiram Abiff, whose singular 
proficiency in all the works of the goldsmith, the brass- 
founder, the dyer and weaver, the lapidary and the jew- 
eler, gave the desired impetus to the adorning of the 

THE COLUMNS AND PILASTERS. Our monitorial in- 
structor gives the due number of these outward parts of 
the edifice, by which the visitor from foreign nations, 
who was not permitted to approach the Temple nearer 
than the outer courts, could form an idea of the magni- 
tude and splendor of the interior. Of columns proper 
there were 1,453; of pilasters, 2,906. Upon other pages 
of this volume a description of the porch and the courts 
is given, from which we deduce the necessity of so many 
columns and pilasters in the building. 

In the same connection, the lectures of the Master's 
Degree compute the numbers of the workmen as follows : 
Grand Masters, 3; Masters, or overseers of the work, 
3,300 ; Fellow Crafts, 80,000 ; Entered Apprentices, or 
bearers of burdens, 70,000. These were all classed and 
arranged by the wisdom of Solomon, that neither envy, 
discord, nor confusion were suffered to interrupt that 
universal peace and tranquillity which pervaded the world 
at this important period. The materials that made up 
this band were the virtuous and laborious ; its master- 
builders the Enochs, the Noahs, the Abrahams, the 
Moses, the Joshuas of the age. There was not a signal 
connected with it which did not point either to man's 
extremity or to God's opportunity ; not a grip which did 
not speak of human relations demanding human sympa- 
thies ; not a word that did not tell of power, permanency, 
or wisdom as the result of active, thorough devotion; 


fot a ceremony which was not full of instruction upon 
(ie great divisions of human knowledge. 

LODGE COMBINATIONS. The number of members es- 
sential to the legal opening and working of a Lodge of 
Entered Apprentices is seven or more, of whom one at 
east must be a Master Mason. 

Where two or three assemble round 

In work the Lord approves, 
His spirit with the grasp is found, 

For 'tis the place he loves: 
Be now all hearts to friendship given, 
For we, the Sons of Light, are seven. 

The number of members essential to the legal open- 
ing and working of a Lodge of Fellow Crafts is five or 
more, of whom, at least, two must be Master Masons, 
the other three being Fellow Crafts. 

This Lodge of Five from Tyre came, 
Their leader one of matchless fame; 
All through the toiling seasons seven, 
Their time upon this work was given. 

The number of members essential to the legal opening 
md working of a Lodge of Master Masons is three or 

lore, all of that Degree. A Lodge attempting to op- 
*rate in violation of these landmarks, breaks the unity 
if the sacred numbers three, five, and seven; the Mas- 

3r who permits it violates in an especial manner his 
*wn covenants, and the Lodge so offending forfeits the 
Jharter or Warrant under which it works, and which in 
-tself embodies an injunction to adhere to the ancient 

THE THREE STEPS. This is an emblem recalling the 


various illustrations of the number Three, and this addi- 
tional one, that human life has three principal stages - 
youth, man-hood, and old age. The first is symbolical 
of the Entered Apprentice, as suggested under the head 
of " Theory of the First Degree," on a preceding page. 
Masons of that grade are therefore exhorted indus- 
triously to occupy their minds in the attainment of use- 
ful knowledge. The second step is beautifully emblem- 
atical of the Fellow Craft, who is exhorted in the lectures 
of his Degree to apply the knowledge which he acquired 
as an Entered Apprentice to the discharge of his re- 
spective duties to God, "his neighbor, and himself. The 
third step is emblematical of the Master Mason, who, in 
the enjoyment of those happy reflections consequent 
upon a well-spent life, prepares his mind for a blissful 

Corresponding with this emblem the being of man has 
three periods time, death, and eternity. Upon one of 
these steps every member of our widely-spread Order is 
now standing. He who writes this and he who reads it 
stands upon the first; but who can anticipate the period 
of his stay? Upon the second hundreds are standing, 
gasping, tottering, perhaps dreading the illimitable pro- 
found that opens before thorn, while in the unknown ex- 
istence of the third is the great mass of those who, like 
ourselves, have 

"Met upon the Level, to part upon the Square." 

THE POT OF INCENSE. This is an emblem of a pure 
heart, and as such is peculiarly expressive. There is a 
state of perfection at which the good man may arrive 
by the influence of vital religion, and such is typified by 


this emblem. A pure heart perpetually ascends in per- 
fumes of gratitude, like the cloud of celestial white that 
filled the Temple, and like the heaven-descended flame 
that burned day and night within the sanctum sanctorum. 
Such is the offering of prayer, the most acceptable in- 
cense the human heart can raise. 

Incense for the service of the Sanctuary was ordered 
to be made of frankincense and other gums and spices, 
the materials and manufacture of which are particularly 
described in the Divine Law. It was the business of the 
priest to offer it up, morning and evening, upon an altar 
especially erected for this purpose, and this was called 
the Altar of Incense. The preparation of it for common 
use was positively forbidden; neither could any other 
composition be offered as incense upon this altar, nor 
could this be offered by any but the priest. The Incense 
approved by God under the present dispensation is more 
fragrant, more costly, and more acceptable than the rich- 
est gums of Arabia. The service and the time of offer- 
ing is in the option of every man. Whenever a Freema- 
son looks upon the emblem, he should be reminded to 
make at least one ejaculation of thanksgiving, praise, or 
confession to Him who ever heareth. 

THE BEE-HIVE.- This emblem of industry has pecu- 
liar meaning to the members of a society based upon a 
working model. The slothful inactivity of the rational 
drone is severely reproved by it. The industrious bee 
rises early to the labors of the summer day, gathering 
from the variegated carpet of nature an aniple supply of 
food for the winter of his year. Man, in imitation of this 
example, might enjoy all the necessaries and even the 
luxuries of life, while he would avoid vice and temptation 


and merit the respect of mankind. On the contrary, 
idleness is. the parent of poverty and immorality. Such 
are the lessons taught by all the working tools the 
Gauge and Gavel, the Square, Level and Plumb, and the 
Trowel of the Craft. Every day of the six properly 
devoted to labor should be so divided that while a share 
may be given to works of charity and devotion, and a 
share to refreshment and sleep, one measured part may 
be given to the avocations of life, those callings upon 
which the interests of society depend. 

The proverbs of the wise king abound in rebukes upon 
indolence and admonition to industry: "Go to the ant, 
thou sluggard: consider her ways and be wise; which 
provided her meat in the summer and gathereth her food 
in the harvest. How long wilt thou sleep, sluggard? 
Yet a little sleep, a little slumber, a little folding of the 
hands to sleep : so shall thy poverty come as one that 
traveleth, and thy want as an armed man." 

SWORD. So much has been said in this volume upon the 
importance of secrecy as a Masonic virtue, that the ap- 
plication of this emblem will be easy. The Book of Con- 
stitutions, as an emblem, represents all the instruction, 
esoteric and exoteric, connected with the Masonic ritual. 
The Tyler of the Lodge, whose emblem, badge, and im-, 
plement are the Sword, is the guardian of those assem- 
blages held for the purpose of lawfully communicating 
the secrets of Masonry. Thus the Sword guarding the 
Book recalls to the memory of the initiate all the instruc- 
tions communicated to him upon this subject. This em- 
blem will convince the Mason of the policy of preserving 


inviolably the important secrets which are committed to 
his breast. 

Various passages from the Holy Scriptures are ap- 
pended to enforce these lessons: "Be ye afraid of the 
sword, for wrath bringeth the punishments of the sword 
that ye may know there is a judgment." "Even a fool 
when he holdeth his peace is counted wise, and he that 
shutteth his lips is esteemed a man of understanding." 
"Whoso keepeth his mouth and his tongue, keepeth his 
soul from troubles. As he that bindeth a stone in a 
sling, so is he that giveth honor to a fool." "Discretion 
shall preserve thee, understanding shall keep thee." It 
will be observed, however, that with us the Sword is but 
a symbol. There is no punishment in Masonry for the 
highest crimes, beyond expulsion from the Order. 

emblem is the complement of the last. The punishments 
of Masonry, at the greatest, are but exclusion from the 
Order. But although Mercy delays the descending 
stroke of Justice, there is a day appointed in which 
Justice will be amply avenged, unless Mercy shall secure 
us in the ark of her retreat. The sword of Almighty 
vengeance is drawn to reward iniquity, and pointed 
steadily toward the sinful heart. Were it not for this 
belief in retributive justice, how painful would be our 
observations of human life! All history is full of in- 
stances of the tyranny of the strong over the weak. 
How much sin against God and humanity is done privily, 
of which there is no disclosure in this life ! Yet there 
is a righteous God, and He does not look upon these 
things without abhorrence. His Law declares : " The 


ungodly shall not stand in the judgment, nor sinners in 
the congregation of the righteous." "If I speak of 
strength, lo, he is strong; and if of judgment, who shall 
set me a time to plead? for he is not a man as I am, 
that I should consider him. I will say untp God, do 
not condemn me/' 

These are the lessons taught by this emblem. As 
surely as Masonry encourages us to hope for a reward 
to the righteous in the world to come, so certainly does 
it inculcate the doctrine that there is a punishment there 
for the evil-doer. 

THE ALL-SEEING EYE. This emblem implies that all 
the ways of man are before the eyes of the Lord, and 
he pondereth all his goings; that the eyes of the Lord 
are in every place beholding the evil and the good, and 
especially upon them that fear him and hope in his 

There is an Eye through blackest night 

A vigil ever keeps; 
A vision of unerring light 
O'er lowly vale and giddy height 

The Eye that never sleeps. 

Midst poverty and sickness lain 

The lowly sufferer weeps; 
What marks the face convulsed with pain ? 
What marks the softened look again? 

The Eye that never sleeps. 

Above the far meridian sun, 

Below profoundest deeps, 
Where dewy day his course begun, 
Where scarlet marks his labor done 

The Eye that never sleeps. 


No limit bounds the Eternal sight, 

No misty cloud o'ersweeps; 
The depths of hell confess the light, 
Eternity itself is bright 

The Eye that never sleeps. 

Then rest we calm, though round our head 

The life-storm fiercely sweeps ; 
What fear is in the blast? What dread 
To us has death? an Eye's o'erhead 

The Eye that never sleeps. 

THE ANCHOR AND THE ARK. Under the emblem of 
Hope, on a previous page, we explained the manner- in 
which this first of the three theological virtues is incul- 
cated to Freemasons. The Ark, an emblem of that 
which survived the flood, reminds us of that ark of 
safety which will waft us securely over this sea of 
troubles; and when arrived in a celestial harbor, the an- 
chor of a well-grounded hope will moor us forever to 
that peaceful shore " where the wicked cease from troub- 
ling and the weary are at rest." This grace is equally 
important and pleasing in this world of uncertainty and 
change. The present moment is sure to possess some 
ingredient to embitter the chalice of mortal enjoyment, 
and how effectually are we relieved by the soothing hope 
that the deficiencies of the present day shall be supplied 
by to-morrow ! The Anchor, which is connected with 
this emblem, is an emblem of security. When the visions 
of hope are real and rational, as when we hope in the 
promises of God, in a future state of happiness to the 
good, and the like, her anchor is sure and steadfast in 
the harbor of a celestial country. To this country hope 


points as the future residence of the virtuous and the 
good; thither all good Masons hope to arrive. 

Green, but far greener is the Faith 
That gives us victory over death ; 
Fragrant, more fragrant far the Hope 
That buoys our dying spirits up; 
Enduring, but the Charity 
That Masons teach will never die. 

THE FORTY-SEVENTH PROBLEM. The history of this 
problem is much confused ; some writers attributing its 
discovery to one person, some to another. Even the 
period of its discovery is doubtful; but so many of the 
most practical operations of architecture and surveying 
depend upon it, that it is difficult to believe its discovery 
bears date later than the erection of the Egyptian pyr- 
amids. Its adoption into Freemasonry implies that the 
members of this Order should be lovers of the arts and 


LIFE'S sands are dropping, dropping, 

Each grain a moment dies, 
No stay has time, no stopping; 

Behold, how swift he flies ! 
He bears away our rarest, 

They smile and disappear, 
The cold grave wraps our fairest; 

Each falling grain 's a tear. 

Life's sands are softly falling, 

Death's foot is light as snow; 
'Tis fearful, 'tis appalling 

To see how swift thev flow : 


To read the fatal warning 

The sands so plainly tell 
To feel there 's no returning 

From death's dark shadowy dale. 


Life's sands give admonition ' 

To use its moments well; 
Each grain bears holy mission, 

And this the tale they tell: 
" Let zeal than time run faster, 

Each grain some good afford, 
Then at the last the Master 

Shall double our reward." 

THE SCYTHE. This emblem is trite : as the mower cuts 
the grass in its season, Death, the grim leveler, sweeps 
away the human race at the appointed time. Behold, 
what havoc the Scythe of Time has made in the genera- 
tions of man ! If by chance we should escape the nu- 
merous evils incident to childhood and youth, and with 
health and vigor, to the years of manhood, yet, withal, 
we must soon be cut down by the all-devouring Scythe of 
Time, and be gathered into the land where our fathers 
have* gone before us. 

THE EMBLEMS OF MORTALITY. At first view these 
emblems, the Setting-Maul, the Spade, the Coffin, the 
Open Grave, and the Sprig of Evergreen at its head, 
seem but to add shades of gloom to those that have just 
been moralized upon, the Hour-glass and the Scythe. 
Alas! who can look within an Open Grave without a 
sensation of profoundest melancholy? Is it for us, we 
mournfully ask, to resign our manhood and court tho 
companionship of the worm? Must our eyes, trained to 
enjoy the charms of nature and of art, be blinded with 


these clods, our tongues silenced in this narrow recep- 
tacle? Yes, such will be our doom. 

A flowing fiver or a standing lake 
May their dry banks and naked shores forsake; 
Their waters may exhale and upward move, 
Their channel leave, to roll in clouds above: 
But the returning winter will restore 
What in the summer they had lost before; 
But if, man, thy vital streams desert 
Their purple channels and defraud the heart, 
With fresh recruits they ne'er can be supplied, 
Nor feel their leaping life's returning tide. . 

And such are all the lessons of human life. We walk 
from grave to grave, as one may walk over a hard-fought 
battle-field, and find no place for his foot save upon the 
image of his kind. The emblems before us demand the 
tear of fraternal sympathy, and we can not refuse to 
weep. The frosts of death have palsied his mortal ten- 
ement. " There is hope of a tree if it be cut down that 
it may sprout again: but man dieth and wasteth away; 
yea, man giveth up the ghost, and where is he?" 

As Freemasonry, in its three degrees, is an epitome 
of human life, so one who passes through its impressive 
ceremonial remains at the last under deep impressions 
of thje certainty of death and the loathsomeness of the 
grave. But here steps in the qualified instructor of the 
Lodge, the Master, and the sad symbology opens out a 
brighter lesson. It opens out the brightest, clearest, 
most hopeful lesson of all; for it tells us what in the 
olden time was a Masonic secret ; but now, " since light 
and immortality have been brought to light in the Gos- 
pel," is preached to every man, that, as this world is to 


the good man but the tiling-room of heaven, so- the grave 
is the door of the Celestial Lodge where our GRAND 
MASTER and the multitude of the faithful Avho have en- 
tered before us are waiting to receive us with tokens of 
aifection and songs o'f transport. The soul remains un- 
affected, flourishing in immortality. 

Yea, though the body may decay into dust, and the 
dust be scattered to the four w^nds; though our name 
and our memory may fade from the minds of men, 
yet there is One pledged to remember us ; to awaken us 
when the morning hour shall come; to reach forth His 
strong hand and to assist us to arise from our long sleep. 
The Lion of .the Tribe of Judah hath prevailed ! The 
Omnipotent is the All-merciful. We shall rise again. 

Tuba mirum spargens sonura, 
Per sepulchra regionum 
Coget omnes ante Thronum. 

CHARITY. The shining virtue of Charity, so honorable 
to our nature and so frequently enjoined in the Holy 
Volume upon our altars, will appropriately close this 
chapter. There are none of the characteristics of the an- 
cient Craft so much valued as this ; their earliest records 
and their perpetual practice coincide in this particular. 
Charity includes a supreme love to God and an ardent 
aifection for the rational beings of his creation. This 
humane, generous, heaven-inspired principle is diametri- 
cally opposed to the prime ingredient of human nature, 
which looks only to self; not until this letter passion is 
supplanted by the former, will the soul of man be purified 
and fitted for the society of heaven. The feelings of the 
heart, guided by reason, should direct the hand of charity. 


The true objects of relief are merit in distress, virtue in 
temptation, innocence in tears, industrious men borne 
down by affliction, acts -of providence, widows left de- 
pendent and desolate, and orphans thrown in tender 
years upon the frigid charities of the world. 

Thus we close our comments upon the symbolical de- 
grees. Every step in this part of the Masonic Ladder 
will lift up the initiate further above the sordid level of 
humanity, and nearer to the celestial world, whose light, 
shining upon him through the first great light of the 
Order, wins him toward itself. Glorious system, which, 
while it the better fits a man for living in this world, so 
perfectly fits him for the world to come ; and, dying late 
and honored, justifies us in pronouncing over his remains 
such a eulogy as this : 

So falls the last of the old forest trees, 
Within whose shades we wandered with delight; 
Moss-grown, and hoary, yet the birds of heaven 
Loved in its boughs to linger and to sing; 
The summer winds made sweetest music there; 
The soft, spring showers hung their brightest drops, 
Glistening and cheerful on the mossy spray, 
And to the last, that vigorous, ancient oak 
Teemed with ripe fruitage! 

Now the builders mourn 

Through Temple-chambers their Grand Master fallen; 
The clear intelligence, the genial soul, 
The lips replete with wisdom, gone, all gone; 
The ruffian Death has met and struck his prey, 
And from the Quarry to the Mount all mourn. 

Bind up with asphodel the mystic tools 
And Jewels of the Work: bind up, ye Crafla, 


The Square; it marked the fullness of his life; 

To virtue's angle all his deeds were true; 

The Level, lo 1 it leads us to the grave, 

Thrice-honored, where our aged Father sleeps ; 

The Plumb) it points the home his soul has found; 

He ever walked by this unerring line, 

Let down, suggestive from the hand of God: 

Bind up, in mourning dark and comfortless 

The Gauge, he gave one part to God, and God, 

In blest exchange, gave him eternity: 

The Trowel, in his brotherly hand it spread 

Sweet concord, joining long-estranged hearts; 

The Hour-glass, whence his vital sands have fled, 

And every grain denoting one good deed : 

The Gavel, in his master-hand it swayed 

For three-score years the moral architects, 

Quelling all strife, directing every hand, 

And pointing all to the great Builder, God! 

Bind these with asphodel; enshroud these Tools 
And Jewels of the Work ; let bitterest tears 
Flow for the man who wielded them so well, 
But, overborne with Death, hath, in ripe age, 
His labor fully done, passed from our sight ! 

suing its work upon the design, and in the spirit of the 
foregoing lessons, will realize the virtue expressed by 
the poet in the following lines : 

Where hearts are warm with kindred fire, 

And love beams free from answering eyes, 
Bright spirits hover always there 

And that 's the home the Masons prize. 

The Mason's Home; ah, peaceful home! 
The Home of love and light and joy; 
How gladly does the Mason come 
To share his tender, sweet employ. 


*A11 round the world, by land, by sea, 

Where summers burn or winters chill, 
The exiled Mason turns to thee, 
And yearns to share the joys we feel. 

The Mason's Home; ah, happy home I 

The home of light and love and joy ; 

There's not an hour but I would come 

And share this tender, sweet employ. 

A weary task, a dreary round, 

Is all benighted man may know ; 
But here a brighter scene is found, 

The brightest scene that's found below. 

The Mason's Home; ah, blissful home! 

Glad center of unmingled joy; 
Long as I live, I '11 gladly come 
And share this tender, sweet employ. 

And when the hour of death shall come 

And darkness seal my closing eye, 
May hands fraternal bear me home, 
The home where weary Masons lie. 
The Mason's Home; ah, heavenly 

To faithful hearts eternal joy: 
How blest to find beyond the tomb 
The end of all our sweet employ! 







THESE four Degrees are conferred, according to the 
American system, in Lodges and a Chapter of Capitular 
Masonry. The ballot is taken in the Fourth or Royal 
Arch Degree, the same rules of balloting being observed 
as in the Symbolical Lodge. All discipline exercised by 
a Lodge requiring suspension and expulsion, is indorsed 
by the Chapter without inquiry. The Chapter has also 
its own code of discipline for offenses against its laws. 
Not less than nine members can open, work, or close a 
Royal Arch Chapter. 



GOD trusts to each a portion of his plan, 
And doth for honest labor wages give ; 

"Wisdom and time he granteth every man, 
And will not idleness and sloth forgive. 

The week is waning fast art thou prepared, 

laborer, for the Overseer's award ? 

Hast thou been waiting in the market here, 

Because no man hath hired thee? Rise and go: 

The sun on the Meridian doth appear 
The Master calls thee to his service now; 

Rise up, and go wherever duty calls, 

And build with fervency the Temple-walls. 

1 see, within the heavenly home above, 

. One who hath done his life-tasks faithful!^'; 
In the dark quarries all the week he strove, 
And bore the heat and burden of the day; 
So, when life's sun passed downward to the west, 
Richest refreshment was his lot, and rest t 

So shall it be with thee, toiling one ! 

However hard thine earthly lot may seem; 
It is not long until the set of sun, 

And then the past will be a pleasing dream. 
The Sabbath to the faithful laborer given, 
Is blest companionship, and rest, and heaven. 



IN entering upon a new system of Masonry, the chap- 
itral or capitular, distinct in almost every particular from 
the ancient or symbolical system, a different style of eluci- 
dation must be 'adopted. We can not any longer look to 
emblems or symbols as our guides, because there are few 
characters of this sort applicable to these Degrees. Such 
designs as ingenious ritualists of the present day have 
introduced are inconvenient for reference, and will bo 
thoroughly explained within these pages, but they can 
not, in a Masonic sense, be styled symbols or emblems. 
The distinction between Symbolical Masonry, or the 
Masonry of the Ancient Craft Degrees, and this, which 
forms the subject-matter of the present and subsequent 
pages, is, that the one is fixed and bounded by ancient 
devices called symbols, mostly of an architectural charac- 
ter, so definite in their character that it is impossible to 
innovate greatly upon them without detection ; the ether 
is controlled only by traditions, more or less apocryphal, 
which receive new forms, as the fancy of modern ritu- 
alists may treat them. Thus it follows that while the 
Ancient Craft Degrees are essentially uniform through- 


out the world, the Degrees conferred in the Chapters and 
Councils in the United States are essentially different 
from those which, under similar names, are worked in 
foreign countries. 

But with all this confusion of working, liability to inno- 
vation, and want of antiquity, there is something so beau- 
tiful in the drama of the following Degrees, the covenants 
are so impressive and humane, and the lessons inculcated 
in the various Lectures so fragrant with the spirit of the 
Divine Word, that it need not be wondered at if, in the 
United States at least, where the reverence for antiquity 
is less than in older countries, they are prized equally 
with the ancient and world-wide system. Almost every 
Master Mason in this country is, or intends to become, a 
Royal Arch Mason, and a Mason of the ^Cryptic Rite. 

What we have said in general terms of the six follow- 
ing Degrees, (the Mark Master, the Past Master, the Most 
Excellent Master, the Royal Arch Mason, the Royal Mas- 
ter, and the Select Master,) we affirm with peculiar empha- 
sis of the Degree of MARK MASTER. Its drama is exqui- 
sitely beautiful, exhibiting the work of the scholar, the 
Christian, the Biblical student, and the genius, who, had 
he turned his mind to dramatic writings, might even have 
emulated a Shakspeare. Its covenants are benevolent in 
an eminent degree, being admirably designed for the fur- 
therance of that social and charitable intercourse between 
brethren which this Degree particularly enjoins. Its les- 
sons, as the following pages will show, are wisely culled 
from the great treasury of the Divine Word. In brief, 
so practical is the MARK MASTER'S DEGREE in its char- 
acter, as conferred in the United States, that its principal 
device, THE KEY-STONE, is publicly worn, Fearing the same 


relation to the so-called " Higher Degrees " which the 
symbol of the SQUARE AND COMPASS bears to the " Lower 

In theory, the Degree of MARK MASTER is appendant 
to that of Fellow Craft, and, could its traditions be his- 
torically established, might, with propriety, be conferred 
upon Fellow Crafts as the complement of that grade. 
Its original members were merely Fellow Crafts ; its lec- 
tures describe the manner in which Fellow Crafts were 
classified, governed, and paid; its covenants have direct 
application to Fellow Crafts alone. But, by general con- 
sent, the Degree in this country is confined to Master 
Masons alone, and a new system of Lodges is framed to 
accommodate it. The title of the organization in which 
the Degrees of Mark Master, Past Master, Most Excel- 
lent Master, and Royal Arch Mason are conferred, is 
Royal Arch Chapter. In a Chapter, not less than nine 
members can open or work. The government of Chap- 
ters is intrusted to Grand Chapters of Capitular or Chap- 
Ural Masonry, of which there is one in every State in 
the Union. 


THE ALTAR. The central design in this, as in all 
preceding Lodges, is the Altar, surmounted with God's 
revealed Law, crowned with the Masonic implements 
the Square and Compass. To an observing eye, this 
constant recurrence of sacred emblems must be highly 
suggestive. Can an institution be evil in tendency that 
seeks the blessing of God through every grade of its 
advancement ? Can the secrecy of which the enemies of 


Freemasonry make a handle, be of an improper charac- 
ter when, whatever else is shut out of the hall, God is not 
shut out? 

There is a prayer unsaid 

No lips its accents move; 
'Tis uttered by the pleading eye, 

And registered above. 

Each mystic Sign is prayer, 
By hand of Mason given ; 
Each gesture pleads or imprecates, 
And is observed in heaven. 

The deeds that mercy prompts 
Are prayers in sweet disguise; 
Though unobserved by any here, 
They're witnessed in the skies. 

Then at the Altar kneel 
In silence make thy prayer; 
And He whose very name is love, 
The plea will surely hear. 

The darkest road is light 
We shun the dangerous snare, 
When heavenly hand conducts the way, 
Responsive to our prayer. 

THE KEY-STONE. The use of the Jcey-stone as a sym- 
bolical device is peculiar to the MARK MASTER. Origin- 
ally connected with a pleasing tradition, upon which the 
Degree is principally founded, it has become the distinct- 
ive emblem of the grade ; and the members are impress- 
ively instructed to mark well its figurative explanation. 
Upon its front are engraven, within two concentric cir- 
cles, certain cryptographic characters, known only to the 


initiated, but bearing a general allusion to that "hiero- 
glyphic bright" on the Fellow Crafts' tracing board, which, 
in the language of the poet-brother, "Burns, 

"None but craftsmen ever saw." 

Within the inmost circle is a space left for the private 
"Mark" of the member who displays the badge. This 
is some device selected by himself, having reference to 
his avocation in life, his heraldic bearings, or such figure 
as is dictated by his fancy. According to the general 
rule of Mark Masters' Lodges, every member is required 
to choose a "Mark" within a specified time after entrance 
upon the grade. Such "Mark" must not conflict with 
one previously chosen by a member of the same Lodge; 
and, being once recorded in the "Mark Book," can not 
afterward be changed, save by consent of the Lodge. 

The use of this "Mark" in those dispensations of 
benevolence which form so striking a feature in this sys- 
tem of Masonry, is exceedingly significant. Its perver- 
sion is carefully guarded against : no MARK MASTER may 
pledge his "Mark" the second time until it has been 
redeemed from its former pledge; and the plea of dis- 
tress made by a MARK MASTER, when accompanied by 
his "Mark," can not be refused by a member of this 
grade without violating the covenant of the Degree. 

Fairest and foremost of the train that wait 

On man's most dignified and happy state, 

Whether we name thee Charity or Love, 

Chief grace below, and all in all above 

O, never seen but in thy blest effects, 

Or felt but in the soul that Heaven selects; 

Who seeks to praise thee, and to make thee known 

To other hearts, must have thee in his own. 


Teach me to feel another's woe 

To hide the faults I see; 
That mercy I to others show, 

That mercy show to me. 

No works shall find acceptance in that day 
When all disguises shall be rent away, 
That square not truly with the Scripture plan, 
Nor* spring from love to God or love to man. 

THE THREE SQUARES. In the Degree of Fellow Craft, 
of which this of the MARK MASTER is 'but the comple- 
ment, the Masonic application of the Square is explained. 
As applied to the person of a candidate for Masonic light, 
the Square expresses that he must be physically, men- 
tally, and morally perfect, to be able to pass the strict 
ordeal of Ancient Craft Masonry. The three squares 
used in the Lodge of MARK MASTERS have the same gen- 
eral reference, but in a more extended and threefold sense. 
Here the works of each member are considered as applied 
to the squares of the Divine Law in the three dispensa- 
tions : the Patriarchal, the Mosaic, and the Christian. The 
grand trial of humanity to be had at the last day, when 
" Shall try the blocks we offer with his own unerring square," 

is forcibly expressed, and an inimitable moral drawn. 
There is impressed upon every member the duty of being 
circumspect in all his words and actions, and of discoun- 
tenancing immorality in others, as well as of keeping his 
own white apron untarnished by a single stain. It was 
written by the pen of inspiration, under the dictation of 
the unerring wisdom of the Most High, that virtue exalteth 
a nation; and it is equally true that vice or immorality, 


unrestrained, is not only a reproach on any institution 
where it is allowed to exist, but will, sooner or later, 
destroy the peace and happiness of the members of that 
institution. MARK MASTERS, therefore, are taught so to 
conduct themselves, in their intercourse with each other 
as brethren, as well as in their dealings with the world 
without, that they may not bring discredit upon them- 
selves or the institution of Masonry to which they belong. 


0, happy hour when Masons meet I 
0, rarest joys when Masons greet 1 
Each interwoven with the other, 
And brother truly joined with brother 
In intercourse that none can daunt 
Linked by the ties of covenant. 

See, ranged about the Holy Word, 

The Craftsmen praise their common Lord! 

See in each eye a love well proven, 

Around each heart a faith well woven I 

Feel in each hand-grip what a tie 

Is this that men call Masonry! 

Blest bond! when broken, we would fain 
Unite the severed links again; 
Would urge the tardy hours along, 
To spend the wealth of light and song, 
That makes the Lodge a sacred spot. 
O, be the season ne'er forgot, 
That takes us from the world of care 
To happy halls where Masons are ! 



Palestine, as a territory, is destitute of forests suitable 
for building material. When, therefore, King David pro- 
jected a grand edifice which should be the crowning glory 
of the reign of his son Solomon, and an evidence of the 
national devotion to God, he made application to Hiram, 
the Phoenician monarch, whose possessions included the 
powerful mountain ranges of Lebanon, for a supply of 
the cedars which grew there in unparalleled abundance. 
The Tyrian king, between whom and King David there 
existed a more than royal friendship, readily acceded to 
his request; and thus the work of preparation for build- 
ing was expedited. So large was the supply of this mate- 
rial furnished to King Solomon, that, after the comple- 
tion of the edifice upon Mount Moriah, which occupied 
seven years and upward, King Solomon erected, upon 
the contiguous hill westward, a palace for his own use, 
in which, so abundantly did the cedar enter, that it was 
entitled "the House of Lebanon." 

On Lebanon's majestic brow 
The grand and lofty cedars grew 
That, shipped in floats to Joppa's port, . 
Up to Jerusalem were brought. 

The principal groves of cedar were found about one 
hundred and fifty miles north-west of Jerusalem, and 
not far from the sea-coast on which the cities of Sidon, 
Sarepta, and Tyre stood. This suggests the mode of 
transhipment, which is described in the Scriptures : The 
trunks of trees were rudely shaped, made into floats or 
rafts, and brought down the coast by Phoenician mar- 


iners, the^ most skillful sailors of the age, about one hun- 
dred miles to the port of Joppa, the only seaport oppo- 
site Jerusalem, from which it was distant but thirty-five 
miles. Here they were adapted, by the tools of the work- 
men, to the exact places they were to occupy in the 
Temple, and then carried by land to the Sacred Hill. 

Being incorruptible to atmospheric influences, the cedar 
beams and planks thus used might have remained to this 
day, the ornaments of Moriah and Sion, and the tokens 
of the brotherly covenants that connected the monarchs 
of Israel and Phoenicia, but for the destructive influences 
of invasion. The Temple, having stood four hundred and 
sixteen years, was burned by Nebuchadnezzar, King of 
Babylon, who was the instrument in God's hand to chas- 
tise a rebellious and idolatrous people. 

The number of cedars remaining upon Lebanon is very 
small less, it is said, than one hundred; but these are 
grand specimens of the Creator's power, towering in sub- 
limity in the valleys, where they are hidden, and suggest- 
ing what must have been the ancient glory of Lebanon, 
covered with a growth of such. 

JOPPA. The peculiarly hilly, and even precipitous, 
character of Joppa is preserved in the traditions of the 
Degree of MARK MASTER, and a benevolent moral de- 
duced, in accordance with the entire instructions of the 

True charity, a plant divinely nursed, 

Fed by the hope from which it rose at first, 

Thrives against hope, and in the rudest scene; 

Storms but enliven its unfading green ; 

Exuberant is the shadow it supplies; 

Its fruit on earth, its growth above the skies. 


Thus no opportunity is lost, either in covenants, em- 
blems, traditions, or dramatic exercises, to impress upon 
the candidate's mind the Divine lesson that, great as faith 
and hope are esteemed in their effects upon the human 
heart, "the greatest of these is charity." 

THE WHITE STONE. Many references are made in this 
Degree to "the white stone," "the head-stone," "the stone 
which the builders rejected," "the head of the corner." 
The whole of this, however, is most impressively con- 
veyed in the following passage from Revelations: "To 
him that overcome th will I give to eat of the hidden 
manna, and will give him a white stone, and in the stone 
a new name written, which no man knoweth saving him 
that receiveth it." 

THE METHOD OF VIGILANCE. The vast numbers of 
workmen who labored upon the Temple more than one 
hundred and fifty thousand will suggest to the mind 
some of the difficulties encountered in rewarding merit 
by a fair compensation to the laborers, and punishing the 
guilty, both those who idly dissipated their time, and 
those who attempted, through fraud, to secure wages 
which they had not earned. These difficulties, quite in- 
superable to an ordinary mind, were thoroughly obviated 
by the wisdom of Solomon, and it is believed that no 
instance of impropriety occurred, during the whole labor, 
which was not summarily detected and punished. From 
the traditions in which these matters are communicated, 
speculative Masons derive moral instruction, apt, abound- 
ing, and important. 

THE WORKING TOOLS. The implements of practical 
architecture, adopted as appropriate to this Degree, are 
the chisel and the mallet. The former suggests the 


effects of discipline and education upon the human heart, 
in discovering the latent virtues of the mind, drawing 
them forth to range the large field of matter and space, 
and displaying the summit of human knowledge, viz., 
our duty to God and to man. 

The latter suggests that, in the school of discipline, a 
man may learn to be content. What the mallet is to the 
workman, enlightened reason is to the passions ; it curbs 
ambition, it depresses envy, it moderates anger, and it 
encourages good dispositions. 

THE DIVINE LAW OF JUSTICE. In the ceremony of 
closing the Lodge of MARK MASTERS is introduced the 
parable of the householder, who employed laborers, as 
he found them in waiting in the market-place, to do the 
work of his vineyard. To each he proffers a specified 
rate of wages upon which the labor was performed. 
And when, at the close of day, he called together the 
workmen, and, paying them the covenanted compensa- 
tion, he found some dissatisfied with the distribution, not 
because there had been any breach of the contract, but 
because the laborers of but an hour were receiving as 
much as those who had borne the burden and heat of 
the day, the householder silenced their unreasona-ble 
complaints by reference to the Divine law of justice. 

THE CLOSING INJUNCTIONS. To the candidate who has 
passed thoughtfully through the dramatic ceremonial of 
the MARK MASTER'S DEGREE, fortunate in having a well- 
instructed Master and an expert membership, the closing 
injunctions appeal with great power. In the honorable 
character of MARK MASTER, it is more particularly your 
duty to endeavor to let your conduct in the Lodge and 
among the brethren be such as may stand the test of the 


Grand Overseer's Square, that you may not, like the un- 
finished and imperfect work of the negligent and unfaith- 
ful of former times, be rejected and thrown aside as unfit 
for that spiritual building, that house not made with 
hands, eternal in the heavens. 

While such is your conduct, should misfortune assail 
you, should friends forsake* you, should envy traduce 
your good name, and malice persecute you, yet may you 
have confidence, that among MARK MASTERS you will 
find friends who will administer relief to your distresses 
and comfort your afflictions ; ever bearing in mind, as a 
consolation under all the frowns of fortune and as an 
encouragement to hope for better prospects, that the 
stone which the builders rejected, possessing merits to 
them unknown, became the chief stone of the corner. 



! raised to oriental chair, 
% With royal honors crowned, 
The grace and dignity to bear, 

As in the days renowned. 
Let firmness guide the ruling hand, 

Nor Gavel fall in vain ; 
And kindness soften the command, 

And law the vice restrain. 

The open Word delight to read 

That trestle-board of heaven 
And see that every Mason lieevl 

The deathless precepts given ; 
And let the Trowel truly spread 

Its cement so divine, 
That all the Craft be duly paid 

Their corn, and oil, and wine. 

The Plumb-line, hanging from the sky f 

In the GRAND MASTER'S hand, 
Be this your emblem, ever nigh, 

By this to walk and stand ; 
Thus grateful Craftsmen will conspire 

To sing your praises true, 
And honors grant you, even higher, 

Than now they offer you. 



WHAT we have said of the dramatic beauty of the 
various degrees elucidated in these pages, does not 
apply to this of PAST MASTER so much as to the others. 
Its drama is but slight, but a single lesson being com- 
municated therein, viz., that of the proper government 
of Lodges by Masters. What it lacks in dramatic force, 
however, is supplied in the importance of the subject. 
Nothing is more vital to the prosperity of Freemasonry 
than the proper instruction of Lodge-masters. 

All Masonic history is uniform in the expression of 
this fact. Mr. Webb, -in his remarks upon the Degree 
of PAST MASTER, says : 

"It should be carefully studied and well understood 
by every Master of a Lodge. It treats of the govern- 
ment of our society and the disposition of our rulers, 
and illustrates their requisite qualifications. It includes 
the ceremony of opening and closing Lodges in the sev- 
eral preceding Degrees, and also the forms of installa- 
tion and consecration in the tjrand Lodge, as well as 
private Lodges. It comprehends the ceremonies at lay- 
ing the foundation-stones of public buildings, and also at 



dedications and at funerals, by a variety of particulars 
explanatory of those ceremonies." 

The form of government adopted in Masonry is pecu- 
liar to itself. While the members of a Lodge are unre- 
stricted in their prerogative of electing, annually, their 
Master, such an one as they prefer, yet, from the mo- 
ment of his installation, they resign the management of 
their Masonic affairs unreservedly into his hands. He 
is the custodian of their landmarks. From his authority 
there is no appeal, save to the Grand Master. There 
can be no meeting of the Lodge without his approbation, 
as the visible emblem of authority ; the Charter or War- 
rant, without which the Lodge can not legally assemble, 
is in his possession. The Lodge has no representatives 
in Grand Lodge save himself and the two Wardens, nor 
can these be ousted from the privilege of representation 
by any action of the Lodge. This sketch of the Mas- 
ter's relation to the brethren will show that his station 
is widely different from that of the chairman or president 
of an ordinary association. 

Such being the ancient powers and prerogatives of 
the Master, it is important that they should be carefully 
hedged around and determined beyond cavil ; also that 
he should be thoroughly instructed in them. That a 
spirit of dictation and haughtiness is likely to grow out 
of so large a range of authority, is highly probable ; and 
some means of communication between the Lodge-master 
and others who hold, or have heretofore held, similar 
authority, must be admitted as very desirable. It is for 
these purposes the Degree of PAST MASTER is de- 


DISPENSING WAGES. One of the prime duties of a 
Master is that of " paying the Craft their wages," con- 
veyed in the following verses : 

They come from many a pleasant home, 
To do the ancient work they come, 

With cheerful hearts, and light; 
They leave the outer world a space, 
And, gathering here in secret place, 

They spend the social night 
They earn the meed of honest toil, 
. Wages of corn, and wine, and oil. 

Upon the sacred altar lies 
Ah ! many a sacrifice, 

Made by these working men; 
The passions curbed, the lusts restrained, 
And hands with human gore unstained, 

And hearts from envy clean ; 
They -earn the meed of honest toil, 
Wages of corn, and wine, and oil. 

They do the deeds their MASTER did ; 
The naked clothe, the hungry feed 

They warm the shivering poor; 
They wipe from fevered eyes the tear; 
A brother's joys and griefs they share, 

As ONE had done before; 
They earn the meed of honest toil, 
Wages of corn, and wine, and oil. 

Show them how Masons Masons know, 
The land of strangers journeying through; 

Show them how Masons love ; 
And let admiring spirits see 
How reaches Mason's charity 

From earth to heaven above; 
Give them the meed of honest toil, 
Wages of corn, and wine, and oiL 


Then will each brother's tongue declare 
How bounteous his wages are; 

And peace will reign within ; 
Your walls with skillful hands will grow, 
And coming generations know 

Your Temple is Divine; 
Then give the meed of honest toil, 
Wages of corn, and wine, and oil. 

Yes, pay these men their just desert; 
Let none dissatisfied depart, 

But give them full reward; 
Give light, that longing eyes may see; 
Give truth, that doth from error free; 

Give them to know the Lord ! 
This is their meed of honest toil, 
Wages of corn, and wine, and oil. 

TIIE BURIAL OF THE DEAD. Another of the primary 
duties of the Lodge-master is that of a decorous burial 
of the fraternal dead. This is a subject of so much im- 
portance as to demand the best efforts of those to whom 
it is intrusted. All the symbolisms of Freemasonry 
point to the grave and the shining world beyond for 
their explication. This is the most impressive ceremony 
of the Order that can be performed in public. It has in 
it all the elements of dramatic effect the dead body, the 
sorrowing mourners, the coffin, the spade, the sprig of 
evergreen, the open grave. The ritualists, Preston and 
Webb, whose plans are mainly followed in the United 
States, give a burial service sufficiently impressive. It 
only remains for the Lodge-master to lay the subject 
impressively before the eyes and ears of his congrega- 
tion. It has been well said that " a Masonic burial, 
properly performed, is productive of twelve Masonio 


initiations," so deep is the impression made on the minds 
of the community. 

MASONIC CONSECRATIONS. At the consecration of 
.foundation-stones, cape-stones, etc., done under Masonic 
auspices, the Lodge-master likewise takes the lead, 
either as the representative of his own Lodge or of the 
Grand Lodge. 

.the Lodge being essentially in the Lodge-master's care, 
he is strictly charged, in his own installation service, in 
fifteen ancient regulations, hedging him so closely about 
that he can not materially err. These are, in brief, that 
he shall be a good and moral man ; that he will be peace- 
able and law-abiding ; that he will avoid plots and con- 
spiracies ; that he will respect the civil magistrate, work 
diligently, live creditably, and act honorably by all men ; 
that he will honor the Masonic rulers, and submit to their 
awards ; that he will avoid private quarrels, and cherish 
temperance; that he will be cautious, courteous, and 
faithful ; that he will respect the true brethren and dis- 
countenance the false ; that he will promote the general 
good of society, cultivate the social virtues, and propa- 
gate the knowledge of Masonry ; that he will pay homage 
to the Grand Master, and conform to the lawful edicts 
of the Grand Lodge ; that he will suffer no innovations 
in the body of Masonry; that he will attend the sessions 
of Grand Lodge ; that he will permit no new Lodge to 
be formed save by consent of Grand Lodge, and give no 
countenance to clandestine Masonry; that he will admit 
no man a Mason without cautious scrutiny into charac- 
ter; and that he will put visitors to due examination 
before admission. 



The PAST MASTER has his own traditions relative to 
King Solomon and his Temple. The following is the 
scriptural account of this edifice : 

"The house which King Solomon built for the Lord, 
the length thereof was threescore cubits, and the breadth 
thereof twenty cubits, and the height thereof thirty cubits. 
And the porch before the temple of the house, twenty 
cubits was the length thereof, according to the breadth 
of the house ; and ten cubits was the breadth thereof 
before the house. And for the house he made windows 
of narrow lights. And against the wall of the house he 
built chambers round about, against the walls of the 
house round about, both of the temple and of the oracle : 
and he made chambers round about. The nethermost 
chamber was five cubits broad, and the middle was six 
cubits broad, and the third was seven cubits broad : for 
without, in the wall of the house, he made narrowed rests 
round about, that the beams should not be fastened in 
the walls of the house. And in the eleventh year, in the 
month Bui, (which is the eighth month,) was the house 
finished throughout all the parts thereof, and according 
to all the fashion of it. So was he seven years in build- 
ing it." 1 Kings vi. 

The above account, though doubtless in accordance 
with the architectural nomenclature of the period, is 
almost inexplicable at the present day. Various plans 
have been drawn by skillful artists, designed to afford to 
the eye a view of the shape and proportions of this re- 


markable edifice, but there is so little harmony among 
the plans as to lead to the suspicion that the key to the 
architectural designs of Solomon has not yet been dis- 
covered. The ground on which it stood is a part of 
Mount Moriah, near the place where the faith .of Abra- 
ham was tried when he was commanded to offer his. son 
Isaac upon the altar, and where David appeased the 
destroying angel by erecting an altar in the threshing- 
floor of Araunah. It was begun in the year of the world 
2992, and before the Christian era 1012; and, as the 
Biblical narrative positively asserts, was completed in 
about seven years. In its construction, Solomon engaged 
the cooperation of Hiram, the King of Tyre, and of the 
most skillful artist of that, and, perhaps, of any age, 
called, it is said, in the Phoenician dialect, Abdonemus, 
but, in the ancient Masonic constitutions, Amom, or 
Hiram Abiff, as his Assistant Grand Master of the 
work. Under them were 200 Hadorini, or princes ; 
3,300 Menatzchim, or expert Master Masons, as over- 
seers ; 80,000 Ghiblim (sculptors), Ishchotzeb, (hewers), 
and Benai (layers), who were ingenious Fellow Crafts, 
besides a levy out of all Israel of 30,000, under Adon- 
iram, the Junior Grand Warden, making in all 113,600, 
exclusive of the two Grand Wardens employed in the 
noble undertaking. Besides these, there were 70,000 
[shsabal, or men of burden. 

collection of Masonic implements, placed before the eye 
of the Worshipful Master, reminds him of his power and 
jurisdiction, while it warns him to avoid the abuse of 
that poAver, limiting his jurisdiction and prescribing his 
conduct. These emblems afford him copious topics of 


advice to such as assist him in the government of the 
Fraternity, as well as to all the brethren over whom he 
is called to preside. There he can descant upon the ex- 
cellencies of the Holy Writings as the rule of life ; for 
those writings teach us, that, being born upon a Level, 
we should act upon the Square, circumscribing our de- 
sires within the Compass of nature's gifts, poured upon 
us from the Horn of Plenty. Here, also, he may exhort 
them to walk uprightly, suffering neither the pressure 
of poverty nor the avarice of riches to tempt the heart 
to swerve for a moment from the Line of rectitude sus- 
pended before them from the center of heaven. The 
division of time into equal and regular portions, and the 
subjection of our passions and desires, will come natu- 
rally up, while the by-laws of the Lodge regulate the 
deportment of the Craft assembled for purposes of social 
improvement and mental recreation. Thus the Master 
will demand prompt obedience, while he exercises an 
affectionate moderation. He will mingle the sweetness 
of mercy with the necessary severity of justice. 



PROSTRATE before the Lord, 
We praise and bless his name, 

That he doth condescend to own 
The temple that we frame. 

No winter's piercing blast, 
No summer's scorching flame 

Has daunted us; and prostrate here, 
We praise and bless his name. 

From lofty Lebanon 

These sacred cedars came; 

We dedicate them to thy cause, 
And praise and bless thy name. 

Ea,h noble block complete, 
Each pure and sparkling gem, 

We give to build and beautify, 
And praise and bless thy name. 

With millions here below, 
With heaven's own cherubim, 

Prostrate before the fire and cloud, 
We praise and bless thy name. 



THE glowing eulogiums pronounced in a preceding 
page upon the Degree of Mark Master are equally 
appropriate when applied to that of MOST EXCELLENT 
MASTER. Its drama, covenants, and lectures bear marks 
of the same skillful hand that framed the other, while 
the Scriptural fact conveyed in them that of the com- 
pletion and dedication of King Solomon's Temple is 
even more impressive in its character. 

The Degree of MOST EXCELLENT MASTER has always 
been a favorite in the United States since the period of 
its introduction, some seventy years ago. 

When the work of the building was complete, the tim- 
bers brought from the distant forests, the stones from 
the nearer quarries, the jewels from Ethiopian mines, the 
precious metals from every part of the known earth 
when, amidst an assembled multitude enumerated by mill- 
ions, the Wise King stood up to dedicate a work in which 
skill and wealth had been exhausted, incidents occurred 
of a Divine character which gave token of God's accept- 
ance of the offering. The TIRE and the CLOUD from 
heaven descended the one to veil from human eyes the 



master-piece of human glory, the other to consume the 
multitude of burnt-offerings which the piety of the chosen 
people had accumulated upon the altar. Then the mul- 
titude of Israel fell prostrate in profoundest adoration. 
Then from every voice there went up the grand So mole 
it be of the Masonic heart, "For he is good; for his mercy 
endureth forever ! " 

These things are taught in the drama of the MOST 
EXCELLENT MASTER'S DEGREE. The spirit of the Dedi- 
cation Prayer is the spirit of this grade, wherein King 
Solomon stood before the altar of the Lord, in the pres- 
ence of all the congregation of Israel, and spread forth 
his hands toward heaven, and blessed the Lord God of 
Israel in fitting terms as a covenant-keeping God. Then, 
in a series of seven petitions, he asked : 

1. That the Temple might become a holy place, in 
which perjury should ever be detected arid punished. 

2. That Israel, stricken at any time before the enemy 
for their sins, if they should turn toward the Temple and 
confess, pray, and make supplication to God, might bo 
forgiven and brought again to the land of their fa: 

3. That the rains of heaven, restrained on account of 
Israel's offenses, should be restored to the land whenever 
the people thereof should turn to the Temple, confess, 
pray, and make supplication. 

4. That famine, pestilence, blasting, mildew, locust, and 
caterpillar, blasting and devastating the land of Israel, 
should be removed whenever the people thereof should 
turn to the Temple, confess, pray, and make supplica- 

5. That the stranger, coming from a far country for 
His Name's sake, and praying toward the Temple, should 


be heard iu heaven, and the purpose of his supplications 
fully granted. 

6. That Israel, going forth to battle, first turning to 
the Temple and praying to him who dwelleth therein, 
might be heard in heaven and their prayer granted. 

7. That Israel, being carried away out of the country, 
captives, to a country near or far, on account of their 
sins, but returning to God in heart and soul, and pray- 
ing to God toward the land of their fathers, and the city 
of God's choice, and the Temple built for His Name, 
might receive compassion from their conquerors, be for- 
given for their offenses, and all their prayers answered 
and granted. 

These seven grand requests being proffered in the 
hearing of the assembled millions, King Solomon now 
solemnly blessed all the congregation of Israel with a 
loud voice, saying: 

"The Lord our God be with us as he was with our 

"Let him not leave us nor forsake us. 

"Let these words of supplication be nigh unto the Lord 
day and night, that he may maintain the cause of his serv- 
aut and of his people Israel, at all times, as the matter 
shall require : that all the people of the earth may know 
that the Lord is (uul, and that there is none else. 

"Let your heart, therefore, be perfect with the Lord 
our God, to walk in his statutes and to keep his com* 
mamlments, as at this day/* 

THE PARTING COUNSEL. The parting counsel given 
by the Koyal Uuilder to those who for more than seven 
years had patiently served him, is suggested in the fol- 
lowing lines: 


King Solomon sat in his mystic chair 
His chair on a platform high 

And his words addressed, 

Through the listening West, 
To a band of brothers nigh 

Through the West and South 

These words of truth, 
To a band of brothers nigh. 

Ye builders, go ! ye have done the work- 
The cape-stone standeth sure; 

From the lowermost rock 

To the loftiest block, 
The fabric is secure 

From the arch's swell 

To the pinnacle, , 

The fabric is secure. 

Go, crowned with fame : old time will pass, 
And many changes bring; 

But the deed you've done, 

The circling sun 
Through every land will sing; 

The moon and stars, 

While earth endures, 
Through every land will sing. 

Go, build like this : from the quarries vast 
The precious stones reveal; 

There's many a block 

In the matrice-rock, 
Will honor your fabrics well; 

There's many a beam 

By the mountain stream, 
Will honor your fabrics well. 

Go, build like this: divest with skill 
Each superfluity; 

80 MOTE IT BE. 135 

With critic eye 

Each fault espy 
Be zealous, fervent, free; 

By the perfect Square 

Your work prepare 
Be zealous, fervent, free. 

Go, build like this : to a fitting place 
Raise up the Ashlars true; 

On the trestle-board 

Of your Master's Lord, 
The grand intention view; 

In each mystic line 

Of the vast design, 
The grand intention view. 

Go, build like this: and when exact 
The joinings scarce appear, 

With the trowel's aid 

Such cement spread, 
As time can never wear; 

Lay thickly round 

Such wise compound 
As time can never wear. 

Go, brothers; thus enjoined, farewell; 
Spread o'er the darkened West 

Illume each clime 

With art sublime 
The noblest truths attest; 

Be Masters now ; 

And, as you go, 
The noblest truths attest! 

So MOTE IT BE. This expression is the emphatic 
amen uttered by the assembled craft upon the repeti- 
tion of any of the ancient landmarks. It is the posi- 


tive affirmation of all that has been handed down to the 
existing generation by the fathers. The following lines 
express the spirit and intention of the words: 

So mote it be with us when life shall end, 

.And from the East the Lord of Light shall bend; 

And we, our six days' labor fully done, 

Shall claim our wages at the MASTER'S throne. 

So mote it be with us: that when the Square, 
That perfect implement, with heavenly care 
Shall be applied to every block we bring, 
No fault shall see our MASTER and our King. 

So mote it be with us: that, though our days 

Have yielded little to the Master's praise, 

The little we have builded may be proved 

To have the marks our first Grand MASTER loved I 

So mote it be with us: we are but weak; 
Our days are few; our trials who can speak! 
But sweet is our communion while we live, 
And rich rewards the MASTER deigns to give. 

Let's toil; then, cheerfully; let's die in hope; 
The wall in wondrous grandeur riseth up; 
They who come after shall the work complete, 
And they and we receive the wages meet. 

THE KEY-STONE. In the beautiful and affecting drama 
of the Mark Master's grade, reference is had to the key- 
stone, the name of .its designer, its singular history and 
destination. In the grade of MOST EXCELLENT MASTER 
this charming device again comes to light, illustrating the 
completion of the edifice of Solomon. Considered as an 
arch, the placing of the key-stone represents its perfec- 
tion. In the deeds of charity to which the principles of 


our ancient institution daily and hourly prompt us, who 
would like to feel that the last act of kindness he has 
performed should never be succeeded by another? that 
no further opportunity will ever be afforded him by the 
Master of life to wipe away a sorrowing tear, to soften 
an agonizing sigh, to mitigate a weight of woe ? Yet, as 
human life is in the highest degree uncertain, such may 
be the case with any one of us. Already the fiat may 
have gone forth that the arch of our life is finished, and 
the vacant seat in the world to come waits our entrance to 
be filled ! Already the sprig of Acacia, hanging greenly 
upon its native tree, may be marked out and designated, 
which the Master of our Lodge shall throw upon our 
coffin ! Solemn reflection ! let us improve it by improv- 
ing every moment of our time to do good, so that when 
the key-stone is finally dropped into place, marking the 
consummation of earthly things, we may expect, both 
from our GRAND MASTER above, and from his surround- 
ing angels and spirits, a welcome into the seats of the 

THE LIGHT OF THE TEMPLE. To one whose shadow 
fills the earth, whose purpose was no less than that of 
fixing Jehovah, the light and life of heaven, in a tenement 
of earth ; whose site, so wisely chosen, refreshes our mem- 
ory with the faith of a patriarch, the repentance of a king, 
the sacrifice of a Redeemer; whose preparation exhausted 
the treasures of the wealthiest and the zeal of the might- 
iest; whose pattern, conceived in the Divine mind, was 
traced by the finger and communicated in writing by the 
spirit of God that spirit which can not err ; whose build- 
ers, divinely selected, divinely inspired, were divinely 
strengthened and sustained ; whose completion left noth- 


ing wanting, introduced nothing superfluous ; whose dedi- 
cation called down from heaven the fire of approval and 
the cloud of acceptance ; whose memory is both the pride 
and the sting of the Hebrew as he walks his homeless, 
aimless way upon the earth : to such a theme to one 
that directs us to the fountain of life for sustenance and 
enjoyment; to one rich enough to comprehend Revelation, 
tradition, reference, type, antitype, prophecy and fulfill- 
ment; to one that challenges us to consider a Temple the 
most costly, the most beautiful, the most perfect, the most 
sacred, the most venerable ever contemplated, executed, 
or beautified by man this Degree of MOST EXCELLENT 
MASTER directs our minds. It is good for the young 
laying up a store of useful knowledge, to be taught con- 
cerning Messiah's temple and Jehovah's altar. It is 
good for the Christian searching out the ways of God 
with man; for the worldling seeking the sublime and the 
beautiful; for the philosopher craving all knowledge that 
is high and ennobling to be enlightened upon a topic 
like this. 


0, WEARY hearts, so worn and desolate ! 

Torn from their native land, from ruined homes, 

From desecrated shrines. 0, hapless fate ! 

Better the solitude of Judah's tombs 

Than all that Judah's foemen can bestow. 

In the far land, where tuneless waters flow, 

Along the sad Euphrates, as they sigh, 

" Jerusalem ! " " Jerusalem ! " they cry, 

" When we forget thee, city of our love, 

May He forget, whose city is above ; 

And when we fail to speak thy matchless fame, 

May He consign us to enduring shame!" 

0, joyful spirits, now so bright and free, 

Amidst the hallowed palm-trees of the west! 

No more the exiles' want and misery, 

The tuneless waters and the homes unblest; 

Remember Sion now, her ruined shrine, 

And take each manly form, the work divine; 

Plant the foundation-stone; erect the spire 

That shall send back in light the eastern fire; 

Set up the altar, let the victim bleed, 

To expiate each impious word and deed; 

And tell the nations, when to Sion come, 

" The Lord is God ; He brought His people home I " 



WHATEVER degree of popularity the preceding De- 
grees of Mark Master and Most Excellent Master may 
have acquired, on account of their beauty of drama, 
their humane covenants, and the wisdom with which their 
lectures are framed, they must surrender the palm in all 
these respects to the one now before us, that of ROYAL 
ARCH MASON. . Mr. Webb, who was mainly instrumental 
in introducing it, in its present form, into this country, 
says, in terms almost extravagant : 

"It is indescribably more august, sublime, and im- 
portant than all which precede it. It is the summit and 
perfection of ancient Masonry. It impresses on our 
mind a belief of the being and existence of a Supreme 
Deity, without beginning of days or end of years, and 
reminds us of the reverence due to His holy name." 

To understand properly the theory of this elaborate 
and beautiful Degree, we must recall to mind the his- 
torical fact, more minutely described further on, that the 
temple of King Solomon, whose construction forms the 



subject-matter of the several Degrees of Entered Ap- 
prentice, Fellow Craft, Master Mason, Mark Master, 
and Most Excellent Master, was totally destroyed and 
leveled to its foundation by the Chaldeans, under Nebu- 
chadnezzar, four hundred and nine years after its com- 
pletion and dedication. The Jewish nation was carried 
into captivity to Babylon, where they remained for fifty- 
two years. Then a portion of them, led by Zerubbabel, 
returned to Jerusalem, by permission of the reigning 
king, and rebuilt the temple. This rebuilding, including 
the national history from the destruction of the first 
temple, nineteen years before, constitutes the basis of 
the ROYAL ARCH DEGREE. It can readily be seen, that 
in this broad field the ritualist had stirring matter to his 
hand; the destruction of the temple and city; the la- 
mentable journey of eight hundred miles into captivity; 
the mournful exile, which even the singing of " the songs 
of Sion" could not enliven ; the joyful return westward, 
when the days of captivity were ended; and the devoted, 
self-sacrificing labors of the reconstruction all thesej 
with subsidiary themes, which the genius of the ritual- 
ist could so readily intersperse, make up the grandest 
display of which the science of Freemasonry, ancient or 
modern, admits. 


The grand march of the Israelites through the wilder- 
ness from Egypt to Canaan was conducted with an order 
and system truly admirable. Each tribe had a banner, 
with distinctive devices borrowed from the imagery em- 
ployed in the death-bed prophecy of Jacob, (Gen. xlix.) 


As these banners are of practical application in the in- 
structions of the ROYAL ARCH MASON, we give them here 
in some detail. 

1. REUBEN. Jacob said of Reuben, "Thou art my 
first-born, my might, and the beginning of my strength, 
the excellency of dignity, and the excellency of power." 
The emblem inscribed on the banner of Reuben was that 
of a young man in the prime of his strength. The place 
of Reuben in the desert-encampment was on the south 
side. Simeon and Gad were his supporters. In the 
division of Canaan, the tribe of Reuben was stationed in 
the south-east, directly east of the Dead Sea. 

2. SIMEON. Jacob said of Simeon, " Instruments of 
cruelty are in his habitation. Cursed be his anger, for 
it was fierce ; and his wrath, for it was cruel." The 
emblem inscribed on the banner of Simeon was an instru- 
ment of war. The place of Simeon in the desert-encamp- 
ment was as a supporter of Reuben, on the south side. 
In the division of Canaan, the tribe of Simeon was sta- 
tioned in the south-west, on. the Mediterranean coast. 

3. LEVI. Jacob coupled Levi with Simeon in his 
stern rebuke, quoted above. The emblem inscribed on 
the banner of. Levi was like that of Simeon, an instru- 
ment of war. This tribe, being made the sacerdotal 
tribe, its place in the desert-encampment was in the 
center, with the tabernacle of the congregation. In the 
division of Canaan, forty-eight towns and cities, with 
their suburbs, were allotted to Levi. 

4. JUDAH. Jacob said of Judah, "Thou art he whom 
thy brethren shall praise ; thy hand shall be in the neck 
of thine enemies : thy father's children shall bow down 
before thee. Judah is a lion's whelp. He couched as 


a lion, and as an old lion." The emblem incribed on 
the banner of Judah was a couching lion under a crown 
and scepter. The place of Judah in the desert-encamp- 
ment was on the east side. Issachar and Zebulun were 
his supporters. In the division of Canaan, the tribe of 
Judah was stationed in the south. 

5. ZEBULUN. Jacob said of Zebulun, " He shall dwell 
at the haven of the sea, and he shall be for a haven of 
ships." The emblem inscribed on the banner of Zebu- 
lun was a 'ship. The place of Zebulun in the desert- 
encampment was as a supporter of Judah, in the east. 
In the division of Canaan, the tribe of Zebulun was sta- 
tioned on the west of the Sea of Galilee. 

6. ISSACHAR. Jacob said of Issachar, " He is a strong 
ass, couching down between two burdens." The emblem 
inscribed on the banner of Issachar was a strong ass, 
couching between two burdens. The place of Issachar in 
the desert-encampment was as a supporter of Judah, in 
the east. In the division of Canaan, the tribe of Issa- 
char was stationed south of Zebulun, on the Plain of 

7. DAN. Jacob said of Dan, "Dan shall judge his 
people, as one of the tribes of Israel. Dan shall be a 
serpent by the way, an adder in the path, that biteth 
the horse-heels, so that his rider shall fall backward." 
The emblem inscribed on the banner of Dan was a ser- 
pent biting the heels of a mounted horse. The place of 
Dan in the desert-encampment was on the north side, 
Asher and Naphtali being his supporters. In the divi- 
sion of Canaan, the tribe of Dan was stationed north of 
Simeon, on the Mediterranean coast. 

8. GAD. Jacob said of Gad, " A troop shall overcome 


him, but he shall overcome at the last." The emblem 
inscribed on the banner of Gad was a troop of horsemen. 
The place of Gad in the desert-encampment was as a 
supporter of Reuben, in the south. In the division of 
Canaan, the tribe of Gad was stationed north of Reuben, 
east of the Jordan. 

9. ASHER. Jacob said of Asher, " Out of Asher his 
bread shall be fat, and he shall yield royal dainties." 
The emblem inscribed on the banner of Asher was a 
prolific tree. The place of Asher in the desert-encamp- 
ment was as a supporter of Dan, in the north. In the 
division of Canaan, the tribe of Asher was stationed in 
the north-west, along the Mediterranean coast. 

10. NAPHTALI. Jacob said of Naphtali, "Naphtali is 
a hind let loose : he giveth goodly words." The emblem 
inscribed on the banner of Naphtali was a hind let loose. 
The place of Naphtali in the desert-encampment was as 
a supporter of Dan, in the north. Jn the division of 
Canaan, the tribe of Naphtali was stationed in the north. 

11. JOSEPH. Jacob said of Joseph, " Joseph is a 
fruitful bough, even a fruitful bough by a wall, whose 
branches run over the wall. His bow abode in strength, 
and the arms of his hands were made strong by the 
hands of the mighty God of Jacob. The blessings of 
thy father shall be on the head of Joseph." The em- 
blem inscribed on the banners of the two sons of Joseph, 
JEphraim and Manasseh, was luxuriant branches overrun- 
ning a wall. The place of Ephraim in the desert-en- 
campment was on the west. Manasseh and Benjamin 
were his supporters. In the division of Canaan, the 
tribe of Ephraim was stationed north of Benjamin, run- 
ning from the Jordan to the Mediterranean coast. The 



tribe of Manasseh had two portions, one occupying tho 
space between Ephraim and Tssachat; the other north 
of Gad, and extending along the east of the Sea of 
Galilee to the base of Mount Herroon. 

12. BENJAMIN. Jacob said of Benjamin, " Benjamin 
shall raven as a wolf; in the morning he shall devour 
the prey, and at night he shall divide the spoil." The 
emblem inscribed on the banner of Benjamin was a 
ravening wolf. The place of Benjamin in the desert- 
encampment was as a supporter of Ephraim, in the west. 
In the division of Canaan, the tribe of Benjamin was 
stationed north of Judah. 

In the prophecy of Moses, delivered just before hia 
death, (Deut. xxxiii,) he reiterates these blessings, elab- 
orating upon the symbolisms of Jacob, and giving strange* 
beauty to the definitions of these devices. 

The groupings of the twelve standards deserve our 
attention. It will be seen by the sketch we have given, 
and by an examination of the 10th chapter of Numbers, 
that the general order of march was as follows : 

I. Judah. 
Issachar. Zebulun. 

II. Keuben. 

Simeon. Gad. 


III. Ephraim. 
Manasseh. Benjamin. 

IV. Dan. 
Asher. Naphtali, 


This brings together the banners in groups, thus : 
I. Ass, lion, ship. 

II. Dagger, young man, troop of horse. 

III. Fruitful bough, fruitful bough, wolf. 

IV. Goodly tree, serpent and horse, bounding hart. 

The respective numbers of the twelve tribes thus ar- 
rayed for march or battle are thus given, (Num. iii) : 

1 54,400 74,600 57,400 

II 59,300 46,500 45,650 

III 32,200 40,500 35,400 

IV 41,500 62,700 53,400 

THE SILVER TRUMPETS. The military signals for this 
grand army were made upon two silver trumpets. These 
were made of "an whole piece" of metal, and used for 
the calling of the assembly and for the journeying of the 

A certain signal upon one trumpet was for the princes, 
"the heads of the thousands of Israel," to assemble 
themselves together " at the, door of the tabernacle of 
the congregation." 

An alarm blast, blown once, was the signal for Judah, 
Issachar, and Zebulun, who were on the east, to move 

An alarm blast, blown twice, was the signal for Reuben, 
Simeon, and Gad, who were on the south, to move for- 
ward. But when the congregation was to be gathered 
together, they should blow, but should not sound an 
alarm. The sons of Aaron, the priests, should blow with 
the trumpets, and they should be to them " for an ordi- 
nance forever, throughout their generations." 



" Let your light shine," the Master said, 

To bless benighted man; 
The light and truth my Word hath spread, 

Are yours to spread again." 

We come. Lord, with willing mind, 

That knowledge to display; 
Enlighten us, by nature blind, 

And gladly we'll obey. 


In the American system of the ROYAL ARCH, great 
prominence is given to the veils or curtains of the Tab- 
ernacle. These are made and set up, as nearly as pos- 
sible, in imitation of those prepared in the wilderness by 
direct inspiration from God; also, those afterward con- 
structed under the directions of Solomon, of which the 
description is, "He made the veil of blue, and purple, and 
crimson, and fine linen, and wrought cherubim thereon." 
(2 Chron., iii.) 

The Tabernacle, of which the veils or curtains were 
used as drapery, was built for God, partly to be the pal- 
ace of his presence as the King of Israel, and partly as 
the place of the most solemn acts of public worship. It 
was constructed with extraordinary magnificence in every 
part, according to the express instruction of Jehovah, 
and evidently with typical design and use. The means 
of building it were furnished in superabundance by the 
voluntary contributions of the people. The oversight of 
the work was intrusted to Bezaleel and Aholiab, each of 


whom was endowed with supernatural skill for that pur- 
pose, and who bore the same relation to this structure 
which the Operative Grand Master Hiram bore to the 
Temple of Solomon. The plan, size, material, furniture, 
etc., to the most minute particulars, were revealed to 
Moses upon Mount Sinai. The whole space inclosed for 
the Tabernacle was one hundred and fifty feet by sev- 
enty-five. This space was surrounded by fine linen cur- 
tains, nearly eight feet in height, and hung from brazen 
or copper pillars. They were secured by rods or cords, 
fastened to the top, and stretched so as to fasten to 
wooden or metal pins in the ground. Twenty of these 
pillars or columns were on each side, and ten on each 
end. The entrance or gate of the court was closed with 
a curtain of different color and texture from the rest, 
stretched on four of the pillars, and so hung as to be 
drawn up or let down at pleasure. 

At the upper part or western end of this inclosure, 
and facing the entrance, was the Tabernacle, properly so 
called, of which all that we have thus far described was 
but the fencing. This Tabernacle proper was forty-five 
by fifteen feet, and fifteen feet high. The sides and rear 
were inclosed with boards, the front was open. Over 
the top was thrown a rich, gorgeous fabric, of various 
materials, the connection and disposition of which, as well 
as of the other parts of the covering, were prescribed 
with the utmost minuteness. The entrance or door of 
the Tabernacle was covered with a beautifully-embroid- 
ered curtain, suspended on five columns. The interior 
was subdivided into two apartments, and separated, each 
from the other, by a richly-wrought curtain, hanging 
entirely across, and reaching from the top to the bot- 


torn. This was called the veil, or second veil, because 
the first entrance was also curtained. The outer apart- 
ment was called the Holy Place or Sanctuary, or the 
first Tabernacle, and the inner was the second Taber- 
nacle or the Most Holy Place, or the Holiest of all. 
The Tabernacle and its court were finished with perfect 
exactness, according to the pattern or model supernatu- 
rally revealed to Moses. And it is estimated that the 
silver and gold used in its construction, to say nothing 
of the brass or copper, the wood, the curtains and can- 
opies, the furniture, etc., amounted to an almost incred- 
ible sum. When it was finished, it was consecrated, with 
very solemn and imposing rites, to the service of Jehovah. 

As all this was used, with more or less exactness, in 
the construction of Solomon's Temple, afterward in that 
by Zerubbabel, of which the Degree of ROYAL ARCH 
MASON particularly treats, and still later in that by 
Herod, made forever memorable by the visits of Jesus 
Christ, a sketch of the use and history of the first Tab- 
ernacle is appended: 

While passing through the wilderness, the Tabernacle 
was always pitched in the midst of the camp. The tents 
of the Levites and priests surrounded it in appointed 
order, and at some distance from them the residue of the 
tribes, in four great divisions, consisting of three tribes 
each, and each division with its appropriate name and 
standard, or banner. On the east was Judah, assisted 
by Issachar and Zebulun; on the south Reuben, assisted 
by Simeon and Gad; on the west Ephraim, assisted by 
Manasseh and Benjamin; on the north Dan, assisted by 
Asher and Naphtali. The symbolical banners, relative 


numbers of the tribes, etc., are minutely given upon 
another page in this volume. 

The Tabernacle and its furniture were so constructed 
as to be conveniently taken down, transported, and set 
up again; and particular individuals or classes had their 
respective duties assigned to them. Every encampment, 
to the number of forty-two, and every removal, and even 
the order of the march, were directed expressly by Jeho- 
vah. On the day the Tabernacle was completed, God 
revealed himself in a cloud which overshadowed and 
filled it. By this cloud assuming the shape of a pillar 
or column, their subsequent course was governed. When 
it rested over the tent, the people always rested; and 
when it moved, the Tabernacle was taken down, and the 
entire host of Israel followed wherever it led. In the 
night this cloud became bright, like a pillar of fire, and 
preceded them in like manner. 

When the journeyings of the people ended, and they 
entered Canaan, the Tabernacle was erected at Gilgal, 
where it continued until the country was subdued; thenco 
it was removed to Shiloh, where it stood between three 
hundred and four hundred years. It was thence removed 
to Nob, and thence, in the reign of David, to Gibeon, 
where it stood at the commencement of Solomon's reign. 
When the Temple was finished, the sacred fabric, with 
its vessels and furniture, described on another page, was 
removed into it; and there its history is lost. 

and beautiful figure of speech, especially in the New 
Testament, to describe the human body as a tabernacle 
of clay. One of the Christian poets carries the allegory 


to a charming point when he describes the pious man as 
nightly pitching his tent 

"A day's inarch nearer home." 

In the same spirit the following lines have been com- 

The Craft, in days gone by, 

Drew from their mystery 
The mightiest truths God ever gave to men; 

They whispered in the ear 

Bowed down with solemn fear, 
"The dead, the buried dead, shall live again 1" 

wondrous, wondrous Word ! 
i No other rites afford 
This precious heritage, this matchless truth; 

Though gone from weeping eyes, 

Though in the dust he lies, 
Our friend, our brother, shall renew his youth. 

And we who yet remain, 

Shall meet our dead again 
Shall give the hand that thrilled within our grasp 

The token of our faith, 

Unchanged by time and death, 
And breast to breast his faithful form shall clasp. 

But who, gracious God, 

The power shall afford ? 
Who, with omnipotence, shall break the tomb f 

What Morning Star shall rise 

To chase from sealed eyes 
The long-oppressing darkness and the gloom? 

Lo ! at the mystic shrine 
The answer 'tis Divine; 
Lo! where the tracing-board doth plainly tell: 


"Over the horrid tomb, 
Its bondage and its gloom, 
The Lion of the Tribe of Judali shall prevail!" 

Then hopefully we bend 

Above our sleeping friend, 
And, hopeful, cast the green sprigs o'er his head; 

'T is but a fleeting hour 

The Omnipotent hath power, 
And He will raise our brother from the dead. 


The use of the Altar in the ceremonies of the ROYAL 
ARCH is even more impressive than in other grades. 
Under the Jewish law, an altar was a structure appro- 
priated exclusively to the offering of sacrifices. Though 
sacrifices were offered before the Flood, the word altar 
does not occur until the time of Noah's departure from 
the Ark. 

Altars were of various forms, and at first very rude in 
their construction, being nothing more, probably, than a 
square heap of stones or a mound of earth. The altar 
upon which Jacob made an offering at Bethel was the 
single stone which had served him for a pillow during 
the night. The altar which Moses was commanded to 
build was to be made of earth ; or, if made of stone, it 
was expressly required to be rough, the use of a tool 
being regarded as polluting. It was also to be without 

In the ancient patterns of altars, although the struc-* 
tures are different, yet we observe upon the most of them 
a projection upward at each corner, representing the true 


figure of the. horns, used, probably, to confine the victims. 
This should be imitated upon the Masonic Altar. 

The altars required in the Jewish worship, from which 
so much of the allegory of the ROYAL ARCH is borrowed, 
were the Altar of Burnt-offering, or the Brazen Altar. 
and the Altar of Incense, or the Golden Altar. The first 
stood directly in front of the principal entrance of the 
Tabernacle in the wilderness. It was made of shittim- 
wood, which is doubtless the Masonic Acacia, one of the 
llnest emblems upon the Trestle-board of Freemasonry. 
It was seven feet six inches square, and four feet six 
inches high. It was hollow, and covered or overlaid with 
plates of brass. The horns upon each corner were of 
wood, overlaid in the same way. A grate or net-work 
of brass was also attached to it, either to hold the fire 
or to support a hearth of earth. The furniture of the 
altar was all of brass, and consisted of a shovel, a pan, 
skins or vessels for receiving the blood of the victims, 
and hooks for turning the sacrifice. At each corner of 
the altar was a brass ring, and there were also two staves 
or rods, overlaid with brass, which passed through these 
rings, and served for carrying the altar from place to 

The fire used upon this altar was divinely sent and 
perpetually maintained. The altar was a place of con- 
stant sacrifice; fresh blood was shed upon it continually, 
and the smoke of the burning sacrifice ascended up with- 
out interruption toward heaven. In the first Temple the 
Altar of Burnt- offering occupied the same relative posi- 
tion as in the Tabernacle : it was thirty feet square, and 
fifteen feet high. In the Temple of Zerubbabel it was 
still larger and more beautiful than in the first. 


The Altar of Incense stood within the Holy Place, near 
the inmost veil. It was eighteen inches square, and twice 
as high, constructed like the other. The top, sides, and 
horns were overlaid with pure gold, and it was finished 
around the upper surface with a crown or border. The 
rings and rods were like the other, gold being used instead 
of brass. Incense was burned every morning and even- 
ing upon it, but no other offerings. Only once a year, 
when the Priest made atonement, was it stained with 


There are few incidents in the early Scriptures more 
remarkable or significant than that in which the emblem 
of the Burning Bush figures. It is described in the 
third chapter of Exodus : 

"Now Moses kept the flock of Jethro his father-in- 
law, the priest of Midian : and he led the flock to the 
back side of the desert, and came to the mountain of 
God, even to Horeb. 

"And the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a 
flame of fire out of the midst of a bush : and he looked, 
and behold, the bush burned with fire, and the bush was 
not consumed. 

"And Moses said, I will now turn aside, and see this 
great sight, why the bush is not burnt. 

"And when the Lord saw that he turned aside to see, 
God called unto him out of the midst of the bush, and 
said, Moses, Moses. And he said, Here am I. 

"And he said, Draw not nigh hither: put off thy 


shoes from off thy feet, for the place whereon thoti 
standest is holy ground. 

"Moreover he said, I am the GoS of thy father, the 
God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of 
Jacob. And Moses hid his face : for he was afraid to 
look upon God." 

This remarkable display of Omnipotent power was the 
preamble to a most important declaration to Moses ; viz., 
that God had looked with a pitying eye upon the sorrows 
of his people, bondsmen in Egypt ; that the time of their 
deliverance was now nigh at hand, and that he, Moses, 
was the chosen instrument in the hand of God to bring 
them forth from slavery. 

Perhaps the ineffable brightness of the Godhead was 
never so clearly poured upon mortal vision as in that 
memorable transaction which this symbol is designed to 
signify. We know that " no man can see God face to 
face and live;" therefore the prophet hid his face, unable 
to sustain the bright effulgence of uncreated glory. It 
is but a natural deduction, from this circumstance, to 
teach that, in order to gain admission into the heavenly 
mount, burning with far greater brilliancy than that 
which dazzled the wanderer on the back side of the 
desert, we must be purified by fire. 

As this was the beginning of the career of Moses as 
the Lawgiver and Leader of the hosts of Israel, it will 
be proper to add that the history of his official life for 
the forty years following is the history of the Jewish 
nation from the close of their bondage in Egypt to their 
approach to the land of promise. The miracles God 
wrought by his hands ; his frequent opportunities of 


communing immediately with* the Divine Majesty; the 
wonderful displays he witnessed of the power and glory 
of Jehovah, and his connection with the grand and signi- 
ficant system of religious rites and ceremonies, which is 
called after him the Mosaic ritual or dispensation; the 
severity of the rebukes he suifered in consequence of a 
single sinful act ; his extraordinary meekness ; the singu- 
lar manner of his death ; and the fact that he is the his- 
torian of ages and events so remote and so intensely 
interesting to us in our various relations, prospects, and ' 
circumstances, all combine to make him, perhaps, the 
most extraordinary man that ever lived. 

There is one use to be made of the Burning Bush as 
an emblem, too direct and striking to be overlooked. 
As this Bush, although on fire, was not consumed, so the 
Church of God, and, in the same allegory, the Masonic 
institution, though, from age to age, burning under the 
fires of persecution, have never been consumed. Nor 
can they be. God is in them " the God of Abraham, 
and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob" and they 
can not be consumed.. In the Masons' Lodge His Word 
lies open, the center of attraction, the object to which 
all entering must approach. In the east of the Lodge, 
His initial shines forth, catching the eye of one entering 
when he raises it from the open Word. His name is 
ever invoked in prayers, covenants, lectures, instruc- 
tions. This, Bush, though burning, can never be con- 
sumed while God is in it. 

Too much can not be written to impress on the minds 
of members of the Masonic institution, that without this 
theory of the continued presence of God in the meetings 
of the Craft, the whole structure, so elaborately con- 


etructed by the fathers, afld cemented from age to age 
by the devotion of the members, must fall to the ground. 
Without this theory, much of the emblems and other in- 
structions are without meaning. The following lines, 
written for the consecration service of a Masonic body, 
are appropriate here : 

Lo, God is here ! our prayers prevail ; 

In deeper reverence adore; 
Ask freely now, he will not fail 

His largest, richest gifts to pour. 

Ask by these emblems, old and true ; 

Ask by the memories of the past; 
Ask by his own great name, for, lo, 

His every promise there is cast! 

Ask WISDOM, 'tis the chiefest thing; 

Ask STRENGTH, such strength as God may yield; 
Ask BEAUTY from his throne to spring, 

And grace the temple as we build. 

Lord God most High, our Lodge we veil 1 

'Tis consecrate with ancient care; 
0, let thy Spirit ever dwell, 

And guide the loving builders here 1 


In close connection with the above remarks, follow 
those upon the unity of the Craft. This is an immediate 
effect of the presence of God in the Burning Bush. The 
following comment upon the 133d Psalm, so wonderfully 
adapted to Masonic use in every grade, is appended as 
he best effort of the sort extant : 


"We s&e in verse 1 what it is we are commanded; viz., 
to dwell together in unity. Not only not to quarrel and 
devour each other, but to delight in each other with 
mutual endearments, and promote each other's welfare 
with mutual services. See, also, how commendable it is : 
4 Behold, how good and how pleasant it is.' Good in 
itself, because agreeable to God's will the conformity 
of earth to heaven. Good for us, for our honor and 
comfort; pleasant and pleasing to God and good men. 
A rare thing, and therefore commendable. An amiable 
thing, that will attract our hearts. An exemplary thing, 
which, where it is, is to be imitated by us with holy 

" The pleasantness of it is illustrated in verse 2. It 
is fragrant as the holy anointing oil which was strongly 
perfumed, and diffused its odors, to the great delight of 
all the bystanders, when it was poured upon the head of 
Aaron or his successor, the high-priest, so plentifully 
that it ran down the face, even to the tfollar or binding 
of the garment. This was holy ointment ; such must our 
brotherly love be with a pure heart devoted to God. 
We must love them that are begotten ' for His sake 
that begat. 3 This ointment was a composition made up 
by a Divine dispensatory. God appointed the ingre- 
dients and the quantities. Thus believers are ' taught, 
of God to love one another.' It is a grace of His work- 
ing in us. 

" It was very precious, and the like of it was not to 
be made for any common use. Thus holy love is, in the 
sight of God, of great price ; and that is precious indeed 
which is so in God's sight. It was grateful both to 
Aaron himself and to all about him. So is holy love; 


it is like ' ointment and perfume which rejoice the heart/ 
Aaron and his sons were not admitted to minister unto 
the Lord till they were anointed with this ointment ; nor 
are our services acceptable to God without this holy 
love. If we have it not, we are nothing. 

" It is said in the third verse to be fructifying. It is 
profitable as well as pleasing. It is 'as the dew;' it 
brings abundance of blessings along with it, as numerous 
as the drops of dew. It cools the scorching heat of 
men's passions as the evening dews cool the air and re- 
fresh the earth. It contributes very much to our fruit- 
fulness in every thing that is good. It moistens the 
heart, and makes it tender and fit to receive the good 
seed of the Word ; as, on the contrary, malice and bit- 
terness unfit us to receive it. It is ' as the dew of Her- 
nion,' a common hill; for brotherly love is the beauty 
and benefit of civil societies ; < and as the dew tbat de- 
scencled upon the mountains of Zion/ a holy liili, for it 
contributes greatly to the fruitfulness of sacred societies. 
Both Hermon and Zion will wither without this dew. It 
is said of the dew, * that it tarrieth not for man, nor 
waiteth for the sons of men.' Nor should our love for 
our brethren stay for theirs to us that is publican's 
l ove but go before it ; that is Divine Z0t j. 

" The proof of the excellency of brotherly love is given 
in the fourth verse. Loving people are blessed people ; 
for they are blessed of God, and therefore blessed indeed. 
There where brethren dwell together in unity the Lord 
commands the blessing, a complicated blessing, including 
all blessings. It is God's prerogative to command the 
blessings ; man can but beg a blessing. Blessings/ ac- 
cording to the promise, are commanded blessings, for 


He has ' commanded His covenant forever/ Blessings 
that take effect are commanded blessings, for ' He speaks, 
and it is done.' 

" They are everlastingly blessed. The blessing which 
God commands on them that dwell in love is 6 life for 
evermore ;' that is the blessing of blessings. They that 
dwell in love not only dwell in God, but do already dwell 
in heaven. As the perfection of love is the blessedness 
of heaven, so the sincerity of love is the earnest of 
that blessedness. They that live in love and peace, 
shall have the God of love and peace with them now, 
and they shall be with him shortly, with him forever, in 
the world of love and peace. How good, then, it is, and 
how pleasant ! " 


All the localities described in the Masonic lectures 
are connected with Palestine or the countries Egypt 
and Chaldea contiguous thereto. This makes it neces- 
sary, in a course of instruction like this, to give a sketch 
of what is familiarly termed " the Holy Land." 

The extreme length of the country, measured from Dan 
to Beersheba, is about one hundred and eighty miles. 
Its average breadth is fifty, from the Mediterranean Sea 
to the deserts on the east. The area of the country is 
not far from twelve thousand miles, which is about the 
size of Vermont, to which State .it also approximates in 
shape and ruggedness. 

There is no district on the face of the earth that con- 
tains so many and such sudden transitions as Palestine. 
It is at once a land of mountains, plains, and valleys. 


In the north, the Lebanon Mountains divide into two 
parallel ranges. The western range has summits of 
thirteen thousand feet. It is broken by the River 
Leontes, opposite Tyre ; decreases in height but ex- 
pands in breadth to Nazareth, where it is again broken 
by the Plain of Esdrselon. Rising again into the hills 
of Samaria, this range continues thirty-three miles, and 
is, for *the third time, broken by the Plain of Shechem, 
near Mount Gerizim. Rising again into the hills of 
Ephraim, of Benjamin, and of Judah, it finally termin- 
ates in the deserts to the south. 

The eastern range includes Mount Hermon, ten thou- 
sand feet high ; sweeps from thence round the Sea of 
Galilee eastward into the mountains of Bashan, Gilead, 
Ammon, Moab, and Edom, and terminates in the hills 
of Arabia Petrea, at the head of the Bay of Akabah. 
These two parallel ranges, covering, as they do, four- 
fifths of the whole country, form the most prominent 
features in Palestine. The valley that separates them, 
called Coelesyria, is three hundred and fifty miles in 
length, and from seven to ten miles broad, serving as 
the bed of the Orontes, the Litany, and the Jordan. 

The greater portion of the towns and cities of Pales- 
tine were situated in the hilly country. This was for 
protection, in a country always subject to invasion. 
Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Hebron, Bethel, Sliiloh, and Sa- 
maria are instances of this. 

Although at present Palestine is but thinly inhabited, 
its soil poorly cultivated, and the state of society uncivil- 
ized in the extreme, yet* in the days when the name and 
the law of God were respected, this was one of the most 
populous, civilized, and fruitful nations upon earth. 


There is almost an air of extravagance in the inspired 
description of Palestine. Its marvelous richness ; its 
cattle upon a thousand hills ; its metallic wealth ; its 
abounding pastures ; its people, numerous, strong, and 
respected throughout the earth, all these combined to 
make it the chosen nation of the world. The hills were 
terraced to their very tops for purposes of cultivation. 
The numerous springs and fountains were used to irri- 
gate, to the last drop, the soil around. The rains* of 
heaven were collected in great pools and cisterns, of 
which the remains every-where attract the eye to the 
present day. And, under the guidance of the wisest 
sages, the arts of agriculture, commerce, and architect- 
ure made Palestine a coveted land, ages before Greece 
and Rome sprung from obscurity. 

Such was the beautiful territory from which the peo- 
ple, consequent upon their conquest by Nebuchadnezzar, 
were banished, to become exiles in an unfriendly land.* 
The story of their calamity is a sad one. Divided into 
two nations, under Rehoboam, B. C. 971, the national 
power and reputation of Israel were henceforth dimin- 
ished by internecine wars. Shishak, King of Egypt, in- 
vaded the country only foul' years after the death of Solo- 
mon, captured Jerusalem, and plundered the Temple. 
One hundred and forty-five years afterward, the northern 
tribes invaded the southern, captured Jerusalem, and 
inflicted great destruction upon it. From these misfor- 
tunes, however, Judah had recovered, when, in the year 
B. C. 588, Nebuchadnezzar, King of Babylon, assisted 
by all the surrounding nations, who were his tributaries, 
brought overwhelming numbers against Judah, and it 
succumbed. The Scriptural account is as follows : 


" Jehoiakim was twenty and five years old when he 
began to reign, and he reigned eleven years in Jeru- 
salem : and he did that which was evil in the sight of the 
Lord his God. 

" Against him came up Nebuchadnezzar, King of 
Babylon, and bound him in fetters, to carry him to- 

" Nebuchadnezzar also carried off the vessels of the 
house of the Lord to Babylon, and put them in his 
temple at Babylon. 

"Jehoiachin was eight years old when he began to 
reign, and he reigned three months and ten days in 
Jerusalem : and he did that which was evil in the sight 
of the Lord. 

"And King Nebuchadnezzar sent and brought him to 
Babylon, with 'the goodly vessels of the house of the 
Lord, and made Zedekiah his brother king over Judah 
and Jerusalem, 

"Zedekiah was one and twenty years old when he 
began to reign, and reigned eleven years in Jerusalem. 

"And he did that which was evil in the sight of the 
Lord his God, and humbled not himself before Jeremiah 
the prophet speaking from the mouth of the Lord. 

"And he also rebelled against King Nebuchadnezzar, 
who had made him swear ly God: but he stiffened his 
neck, and hardened his heart from turning unto the Lord 
God of Israel. 

" Moreover all the chief of the priests, and r the 
people, transgressed very much after all the abomina- 
tions of the heathen ; and polluted the house of the Lord 
which he had hallowed in Jerusalem. 

" And the Lord God of their fathers sent to them by 


his mer^engers, rising up betimes, and sending ; because 
he had compassion on his people, and on his dwelling- 
place : 

" But they mocked the messengers of God, and de- 
spised his words, and misused his prophets, until the 
wrath of the Lord arose against his people, till there was 
no remedy. 

" Therefore he brought upon them the King of the 
Chaldees, who slew their young men with the sword in 
the house of their sanctuary, and had no compassion 
upon young man or maiden, old man, or him that stooped 
for age : he gave them all into his hand. 

"And all the vessels of the house of God, great and 
small, and the treasures of the house of the king and 
of his princes ; all these he brought to Babylon. 

"And they burnt the house of God, and brake down 
the wall of Jerusalem, and burnt all the palaces thereof 
with fire, and destroyed all the goodly vessels thereof. 

"All them that had escaped from the sword carried 
he away to Babylon ; where they were servants to him 
and to his sons, until the reign of the kingdom of Persia : 

"To fulfill the word of the Lord by the mouth of 
Jeremiah, until the land had enjoyed her sabbaths : for 
as long as she lay desolate she kept sabbath, to fulfill 
threescore and ten years." 2 Chron., xxxvi. 

In the 2d Book of Kings, further particulars of this 
terrible and crushing calamity are given. The siege of 
Jerusalem lasted eighteen months : 

" The famine prevailed in the city, and there was no 
bread for the people of the land. 


" And the city was broken up, and all the men of war 
tied by night by the way of the gate between two walls, 
which is by the king's garden : and the king (Zedekiah) 
went the way toward the plain (of Jericho). 

"And the army of the Chaldees pursued after the 
king, and overtook him in the plains of Jericho : and all 
his army were scattered from him. 

" So they took the king, and brought him up to the 
king of Babylon to Riblah ; and they gave judgment upon 

"And they slew the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes, 
and put out the eyes of Zedekiah, and bound him with 
fetters of brass, and carried him to Babylon.' 7 

The great pillars, Jachin and Boaz, which stood 'east- 
ward from the Temple, were broken in pieces, and 
carried to Babylon ; the better portion of the people 
taken into exile, and the poor of the land only left to 
be vine-dressers and husbandmen. Thus lay the Holy 
Land the kingdom extinct, the country Wasted, the 
fenced cities dismantled, and the nation in captivity. A 
provincial government was established, under the Baby- 
lonish government. This event occurred four hundred 
and sixty-eight years after David began to reign in 
Hebron, threp hundred and eighty-eight years after the 
revolt of the ten tribes under Rehoboam, and one hun- 
dred and thirty-four years after the downfall of the rival 
nation thus formed. 

The journey of the exiles to Babylon was, upon some 
accounts, the most pathetic event recorded in the annals 
of history. The distance, upon a direct line, was but 
six hundred miles, but taking the journey, extended by 


the necessity of water, fuel, 'and forage, it was not less 
than eight hundred. From Jerusalem, through Bethel 
and Shiloh, forty miles to Samaria, was a hilly region, 
hard, indeed, to the bare and lacerated feet of princes, 
rulers, delicate females, and old age. A short rest in 
the fertile plains of Samaria, and then another hilly 
region of thirty miles was interposed to. the beautiful 
plain of Esdraelon, the richest and most fertile in Pales- 
tine the scene of the national glories under Barak, 
Gideon, and other mighty men of Israel. Another more 
painful pilgrimage, of one hundred miles and upward 
followed, to the region of Damascus. Then began the 
desert, arid, torrid, and solitary. A long stretch of this, 
during which thousands of the captives, doubtless, left 
their bones by the wayside, brought the exiles to Pal- 
myra, or Tad m or in the Wilderness. This splendid 
resting-place in the desert was their last reminder of 
the Jewish King Solomon, its builder. 

From Palmyra, over the almost interminable deserts, 
to the river Euphrates, and now the bitterness of their 
journey began to be assuaged. The comforts of life 
were more freely bestowed ; more attention was given 
to the little ones, and to the sick. Their conquerors ap- 
portioned them off, according to rules of consanguinity, 
iu the fertile tracts and flourishing towns of Chaldea. 
God did not forsake his people in those distant parts. 
Prophets, such as Daniel and Ezekiel,' gave them com- 
fortable hopes of pardon and release. Esther, one of 
their kindred, was made queen, and they received great 
benefits from her royal favor. In fact, their condition 
was one of comparative honor and comfort. By many 
stupendous miracles, their God became known and feared 


throughout the empire, and by important services ren- 
dered to the state by those Jews who held high offices, 
the royal favor was the more readily moved toward the 
nation. Their idolatry, which had been marked by the 
Divine eye as the worst of the long catalogue of their 
offenses, was effectually cured, and whatever faults the 
Jews may have committed after their release from cap- 
tivity, during the remainder of their existence as a na- 
tion, that of idolatry can not be charged against them. 
In our next chapter we describe their return to Jeru- 


In the forty-ninth year from the destruction of Jeru- 
salem, and the sixty-seventh year of the captivity, in the 
year B. C. 539, the Babylonish monarchy was overthrown 
by Cyrus, the young prince of Persia, commander of 
the combined forces of the Medes and Persians. His 
uncle, Darius, took the kingdom and thus founded the 
Medo-Persian Empire, as foretold by the Prophet Daniel. 
The Babylonian Empire had existed eighty-four years, 
having been founded B. C. 623. Darius lived but two 
years after the establishment of his power in Babylon, 
dying in the sixty-ninth year of the captivity. He was 
succeeded by Cyrus. This man had been distinctly men- 
tioned by name in the prophecy of Isaiah, made and 
recorded more than a hundred years before he was born. 
It had been predicted of him that he should both over- 
throw the Babylonish monarchy and restore the Jews 
to their native land and their former privileges. 

In the first year of the reign of Cyrus and the seven- 


tieth of the captivity, he issued a proclamation through- 
out his empire, granting a release to all the Jewish cap- 
tives, with full privileges to return to Palestine, rebuild 
Jerusalem, and resuscitate the nation. At the same time 
he restored all the sacred vessels of the Temple, which 
had been carried away by Nebuchadnezzar, and made 
other provisions for the immediate accomplishment of 
the objects of the royal edict. 

is a Rabbinical tradition, that on the return journey the 
people made fifteen prominent stages, each being term- 
inated by a halt of sufficient duration for rest and re- 
freshment : and that the short Psalms, from 120 to 134, 
inclusive, were sung respectively upon those occasions. 
The First Stage opens with the expression, " In my 
distress I cried unto the Lord;" the Second Stage, by 
this, " I will lift up mine eyes unto the hills from w r hence 
cometh my help ;" the Third Stage, " I was glad when 
they said unto me, Let us go unto the house of the 
Lord;" the Fourth Stage, "Unto Thee lift I up mine 
eyes, Thou that dwellest in the heavens ;" the Fifth 
Stage, "If it had not been for the Lord, who was on 
our side ;" the Sixth Stage, " They that trust in the 
Lord, shall be as Mount Zion, which can not be removed, 
but abideth forever ;" the Seventh Stage, " When the 
Lord turned again the captivity of Zion, we were like 
them that dream ;" the Eighth Stage, " Except the Lord 
build the house, they labor in vain that build it ;" the 
Ninth Stage, "Blessed is every one that feareth the 
Lord, that walketh in his ways ;" the Tenth Stage, 
" Many a time have they afflicted me from my youth, 
may Israel now say ;" the Eleventh Stage, " Out of the 


deptns have I cried unto Thee, Lord;" the Twelfth 
Stage, " Lord, my heart is not haughty, nor my eyes 
lofty ;" the Thirteenth Stage, "Lord, remember David 
and all his afflictions ;" the Fourteenth Stage, " Behold 
how good and pleasant it is for brethren to dwell to- 
gether in unity ;" the Fifteenth and last Stage, " Be- 
hold, bless ye the Lord, all ye servants of the Lord, 
which by night stand in the house of the Lord." 

Before following the Jews from the place of their long 
exile in Chaldea, it is proper here to quote the whole of 
the 137th Psalm, as giving evidence of their commend- 
able constancy amidst the most untoward circumstances : 

"By the rivers of Babylon, there we sat down; yea, 
we wept, When we remembered Zion. 

" We hanged our harps upon the willows in the midst 

" For there they that carried us away captive required 
of us a song ; and they that wasted us required of us 
mirth, saying, Sing us one of the songs of Zion. 

"How shall we sing the Lord's song in a strange 

"If I forget thee, Jerusalem, let my right hand for- 
get her cunning. 

"If I do not remember thee, let my tongue cleave to 
the roof of my mouth; if I prefer not Jerusalem above 
my chief joy. 

"Remember, Lord, the children of Edom in the day 
of Jerusalem; who said, Rase it, rase it, even to the 
foundation thereof. 

"0 daughter of Babylon, who art to be destroyed; 


happy shall he be that rewardeth thee as thou hast 
served us. 

" Happy shall he be that taketh and dasheth thy little 
ones against the stones." 

THE NATIONAL BEREAVEMENT. The excessive sorrow 
that afflicted the minds of the Jews at the loss of their 
country can not be thoroughly appreciated, unless we 
take into consideration the facts that these people had 
possessed Palestine for twelve hundred years, counting 
from the entrance of Abraham;, that their religious pol- 
ity was thoroughly identified with it, and that their hopes 
of the Messiah, who should restore to the world all that 
had been lost in the expulsion from Eden, were locally 
connected with Bethlehem-Judah, and other designated 
spots. The lamentations of which the Prophet Jeremiah 
was the mouthpiece are not an extravagant expression 
of the national sorrow. Although uttered only as pre- 
dictions, they foreshadowed the grievous facts that should 
follow. In this terrible exhibit of human distress we 
find such passages as these: 

" How doth the city sit solitary that was full of peo- 
ple ! how is she become as a widow ! She weepeth sore 
in the night, and her tears are in her cheeks. All her 
friends have dealt treacherously with her ; they are be- 
come her enemies. She dwelleth among the heathen, 
she findeth no rest. Her children are gone into cap- 
tivity before the enemy. From the daughter of Zion 
all her beauty is departed. Jerusalem hath grievously 
sinned; therefore she is removed. All her people sigh; 


they seek bread. See if there be any sorrow like unto 
my sorrow. The Lord hath trodden under foot all my 
mighty men in the midst of thee. 

" The Lord hath purposed to destroy the wall of the 
daughter of Zion ; he hath stretched out a line, he hath 
not withdrawn his hand from destroying. The elders of 
the daughter of Zion sit upon the ground and keep 
silence. The children and the sucklings swoon in the 
streets of the city. They say to their mothers, Where is 
corn and wine? All that pass by, clap their hands at 
thee; they hiss and wag their head at the daughter of 
Jerusalem, saying, Is this the city that men call The 
Perfection of beauty, The Joy of the whole earth? The 
tongue of the sucking child cleaveth to the roof of his 
mouth for thirst; the young children ask bread, and no 
man breaketh it unto them. The punishment of the in- 
iquity of the daughter of my people is greater than the 
punishment of the sin of Sodom. They that be slain 
with the sword are better than they that be slain with 

" Our inheritance is turned to strangers, our houses to 
aliens. ' We are orphans and fatherless, our mothers are 
as widows. Our necks are under persecution : we labor, 
and have no rest. Our skin was black as an oven be- 
cause of the terrible famine. They ravished the women 
in Zion, and the maids in the cities of Judah. Princes 
are hanged up by their hand : the faces of elders were 
not honored. The joy of our heart is ceased ; our dance 
is turned into mourning. The crown is fallen from our 
head. Lord, thou hast utterly rejected us; thou art 
very wroth against us." Lamentations. 


In vivid contrast with this condition of humiliation and 
distress was the national joy that broke forth upon the 
proclamation of Cyrus, to which the Lord stirred up 
his spirit. It was in these words : 

"Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, The Lord God of 
heaven hath given me all the kingdoms of the earth; and 
he hath charged me to build him an house at Jerusalem, 
which is in Judah. Who is there among you of all hia 
people? his God be with him, and let him go up to Jeru- 
salem, which is in Judah, and build the house of the Lord 
God of Israel, (he is the God,) which is in Jerusalem. 
And whosoever remaineth in any place where he sojourn- 
eth, let the men of his place help him with silver, and 
with gold, and with goods, and with beasts, besides the 
free-will offering for the house of God which is in Jeru- 
salem." Ezra, i. 

An expedition of the returning exiles was formed by 
Zerubbabel, a descendant of the royal house of David, 
and by Joshua, the high-priest. Zerubbabel was in- 
vested by the king with all the functions of the Gov- 
ernor of Judea. This colony amounted to about fifty 
thousand persons. These took with them the vessels of 
the house of the Lord, being " thirty chargers of gold, a 
thousand chargers of silver, nine and twenty knives, 
thirty basins of gold, silver basins of a second sort, four 
hundred and ten, and other vessels a thousand. All 
the vessels of gold and silver were five thousand and 
four hundred." (Ezra, i.) The Jews, who for various 
reasons remained behind, strengthened the hands of their 


rude, zealous friends with "money, goods, beasts, and 
precious things, besides, all that was willingly offered." 
This made the caravan to include seven hundred and 
thirty-six horses, two hundred and forty-five mules, four 
hundred and thirty-five camels, and six thousand seven 
hundred and twenty asses. The money contributed by 
the more liberal of the Jews is summed up at sixty-one 
thousand drams of gold, and five thousand pounds of 

So, joyfully they set forth upon the return journey 
by the same route which their sorrowing and suffering 
fathers had traveled fifty-one years before. Arrived at 
Palestine, their first care, after looking up their former 
homes, and making necessary provisions for their future 
support, was to rebuild the Temple. In the second year 
of their coming, Zerubbabel and Joshua, who had taken 
the supervision, set forward the workmen in the house 
of God. 

"And when the builders laid the foundation of the 
Temple of the Lord, they set the priests in their ap- 
parel, (described upon another page,) with trumpets, 
and the Levites the sons of Asaph with cynbals, to 
praise the Lord after the ordinance of David king of 
Israel. And they sang together by course in praising 
and giving thanks unto the Lord ; because he is good, 
for his mercy endureth forever toward Israel. And all 
the people shouted with a great shout, when ther praised 
the Lord, because the foundation of the house of the 
Lord was laid. But many of the priests and Levites, 
and chief of the fathers, who were ancient men, that 
had seen the first house, when the foundation of this 


house was laid before their eyes, wept with a loud voice; 
and many shouted aloud for joy: so that the people 
could not discern the noise of the shout of joy from the 
noise of the weeping of the people : for the people shouted 
with a loud shout, and the noise was heard afar off." 
Ezra, iii. 

With all this favorable beginning, however, it was nine- 
teen years before the cape-stone was set in the edifice. 
The Samaritans, between whom and the Jews there had 
long existed an implacable hatred, weakened their hands, 
troubled them in building, and hired counselors against 
them to frustrate their purpose, through the reign of 
Cyrus and his successors to that of Darius. Ahasuerus 
was moved by their malicious representations to cause 
the building to cease, nor was it until the second year 
of the reign of Darius that it was resumed. That mon- 
arch decreed that no more hindrance should be made to 
the work, but that money should be given from the royal 
treasury toward the cost, and young bullocks, rams, and 
lambs for the burnt-offerings: also wheat, salt, wine, and 
oil. The royal edict was thus summed up : 

Whosoever shall alter this word, let timber be pulled 
down from his house, and being set up, let him be hanged 
thereon; and let his house be made a dunghill for this. 
And the God that hath caused his name to dwell there 
destroy all kings and people, that shall put to their hand 
to alter and to destroy this house of God which is at 
Jerusalem. I Darius have made this decree; let it be 
done with speed." Ezra, vi. 



Upon the last page is described the earnestness with 
which the Jews acted upon the proclamation of Cyrus, 
A similar zeal was aroused by the edict of Darius. To 
encourage them in their work, the prophets Haggai and 
Zechariah were raised up. They approached them in the 
name of the God of Israel. The former severely re- 
buked the disposition of the people to lie supine under 
the frowns of King Ahasuerus, and commanded them, 
" Go up to the mountain, and bring wood, and build the 
house," promising them the Divine aid. " I will fill this 
house with glory, saith the Lord of hosts. The glory 
of this latter house shall be greater than that of the 

Zechariah brought good word, and comfortable word 
from God, saying : 

" I am returned to Jerusalem with mercies ; mine 
house shall be built in it ; my cities, through prosperity, 
shall yet be spread abroad, and the Lord shall yet com- 
fort Zion, and shall yet choose Jerusalem. 

" The hands of Zerubbabel have laid the foundations 
of this house ; his hands shall also finish it. 

"They that are far off shall come, and build in the 
temple of the Lord : and ye shall know that the Lord 
of hosts hath sent me unto you. And this shall come to 
pass if ye will diligently obey the voice of the Lord your 
God." * 

A second installment of Jews from Babylon came up, 
under the command of Ezra, seventy-seven years after 


the first. Ezra came with full powers from the king to 
reestablish the authority of the law of Moses. This 
second colony numbered about seven thousand. The 
journey occupied exactly four months, by which we can 
estimate the difficulties and impediments of the way, 
even under favorable circumstances. 

The king, Artaxerxes Longimanus, issued an edict, 
exceedingly liberal in its character, and ending in these 
impressive words : 

"And whosoever will not do the law of thy God, and 
the law of the king, let judgment be executed speedily 
upon him, whether it be unto death, or to banishment, 
or to confiscation of goods, or to imprisonment." 
Ezra, vii. 

Thirteen years later, B. C. 444, the third installment 
of the nation came up, under Nehemiah. He had re- 
ceived intelligence at Babylon of the decline of the Jew- 
ish colony, and obtained a commission from the same 
monarch, Artaxerxes Longimanus, who had favored 
Ezra, to visit Jerusalem and rectify the disordered state 
of affairs. The walls of the city had not been rebuilt, 
and although the temple was finished, and probably 
walled in, yet the undefended condition of the people at 
large subjected them to great reproach and persecution 
from surrounding nations, the Samaritans taking the 
lead. Nehemiah was appointed governor for twelve 
years, with full powers to rebuild the city and restore 
the ancient fortifications. His arrival was one hundred 
and twelve years subsequent to that of Zerubbabel. At 
.the expiration of the term of his first commission, he 


was reappointed, and continued to serve in that capacity 
until about the year B. C. 420. During the latter years 
of his government lived Malachi, the last of the Old 
Testament prophets. Besides these three principal col- 
onies that returned from Babylon to repeople the land, 
whose loss they had so grievously deplored, we may 
justly suppose that many thousands of Jews took the 
opportunity to return to their fatherland by caravans 
of merchants coming from the east, or in other smaller 
companies of returning Jews. 

The Jewish nation continued subject to the Persian 
power until its overthrow by Alexander, the Macedonian, 
B. C. 331. In all, they had maintained their allegiance 
to Persia two hundred and eight years. In the division 
of Alexander's empire, Palestine fell to Ptolemy Lagus. 
They were subject to the Greek-Egyptian and the Greek- 
Syrian monarchs one hundred and fifty-eight years, and 
until the year B. C. 143. Then they regained their 
independence by virtue of a royal grant from Demetrius 
Nicator, king of the Greek-Syrian empire, and held it 
eighty years; viz., till the year B. C. 63, when Judea 
was made a Roman province by Pompey. They were 
still, however, permitted to have governors of their -own 
nation until the time of Christ. In the year A. D. 9, a 
Roman governor was appointed, tribute was paid directly 
to Rome, the power of life and death was taken away, 
and justice administered in the name and by the laws of 
Rome. Jerusalem ceased to be the capital of Palestine. 
In the year A. D. 70, the city of Jerusalem was once 
more totally razed to the ground by Titus, the Roman 
general, after a siege and series of assaults, in which 
more than a million of Jews perished. From this stroke 


the nation has never recovered. Scattered throughout 
the earth, exiles, down-trodden, suffered to live in small 
numbers at Jerusalem, but to enjoy no naturalization or 
political rights, the Jewish people remain standing monu- 
ments of the truth of Scripture. The importance of the 
study of these holy books to the ROYAL ARCH MASON 
can not be exaggerated. 

0, early search the Scriptures! 'tis the dew 

On morning leaves; 'tis the young rose's bloom; 
'Tis the bright tinge of m-orning; 'tis the hue 
That doth on cheek of conscious virtue come; 
'Tis all that gratifies the sight, 
To see this sacred Book aright. 

0, fondly search the Scriptures ! 'tis the voice 

Of loved ones gone forever; 'tis the song 
That calls to memory childhood's perished joys 
'Tis the blest anthem of the angel-throng; 
'T is all that gratifies the ear, 
This sacred Book aright to hear. 

0, deeply search the Scriptures! 'tis the mine 

Of purest gold and gems of richest sort; 
'T is life's full sustenance of corn and wine ; 
'Tis raiment, clean and white, from heaven brought; 
'T is wealth beyond all we can crave, 
This sacred Book aright to have. 

For here, here, the loved departed ! 

The Man of Sorrows, slain for us, 
Speaks to the worn and broken-hearted, 
And tells us, " I have borne the curse ! 
Redeemed thee from the power of death, 
And sanctified thy parting breath." 

That in bright worlds, depictured here, 
Are "many mansions," ample room, 


Where Christ our Savior waits to cheer, 
And bid us welcome from the tomb: 
Where many a friend we counted lost, 
Is singing with the heavenly host. 

This is the one, the appointed way, 

Through which the Holy Ghost doth speak; 
0, walk therein, through life's brief clay, 
And treasures of salvation seek ; 
Assured there is no other ford 
Through Jordan's billows save THE WORD. 


Jerusalem ! the City of Peace ! Zion ! the perfection 
of beauty ! the joy of the whole earth ! the City of 
David ! the central point of sacred history, around which 
revolve all that is historical, all that is symbolical, all 
that is solemn, grand, or pathetic in the dealings of God 
with men. The Holy Place ! the type of a heavenly 
city, upon whose eternal glories Ezeki'el, Daniel, and 
John have exhausted their descriptive powers ! 

Jerusalem ! how vividly comes over the mind the 
memory of that fine old hymn, one of the old-est in our 
language, one of the finest in any language : 

Jerusalem! my happy home! 

0, how I long for thee ! 
When shall my sorrows have an end? 

Thy joys when shall I see? 

This was the capital of the Jewish kingdom for 
eleven hundred years. It was the scene of the most 
extraordinary events that have occurred in the annals 


of the human race events in which men and angels 
have, and must forever have, the deepest interest. It 
was the place selected by the Almighty for his earthly 
dwelling, and here his glory was rendered visible. Here 
David sat and tuned his harp, and sung the praises of 
Jehovah. Hither the tribes came up, the tribes of the 
Lord, unto the testimony of Israel, to give thanks unto 
the name of the Lord. Here enraptured prophets saw 
bright visions of the world above, and received messages 
from on high for guilty men. Here our Lord and 
Savior came in the form of a servant, and groaned and 
wept, and poured out his soul even unto death, to re- 
deem us from sin, and to save us from the pains of hell. 
Here, too, the wrath of an incensed God has fallen upon 
his chosen people, and has laid waste his heritage. 

No place upon earth has such a history. For three 
thousand five hundred years the hills round about Jeru- 
salem have been the scene of mortal strife. The echoes 
of these mountains have resounded to the war-cries of 
a hundred nations. Seventeen times has the city been 
destroyed, and as often rebuilt now a place of luxury 
and grandeur, and now a place of silence and desola- 

It was here that Melchizedek met and welcomed the 
patriarch as he was returning from the defeat of the 
four kings, at Hobah. Here Abraham returned, forty- 
two years afterward, upon a mission the most pathetic 
that can affect a parent's heart. Here David reared an 
altar when the plague was stayed. And here, as the 
crowning glory of all, was reared the Sacred Fane, 
which is equally the object of interest to ROYAL ARCH 
as to all other classes of Freemasons. 



One of the most forcible and instructive lessons m the 
whole Masonic system is that inculcated in the drama 
of the ROYAL ARCH DEGREE, under the general term of 
"Returning from Babylon to Jerusalem." Under the 
guise of a difficult and painful pilgrimage, in which the 
travelers are buoyed up by the sense of duty and the 
hope of reward, the whole lesson of human life is con- 
veyed, surrounded with trials and perplexities, but pre- 
senting the highest injunctions of duty as a stimulus, 
and offering the most exalted rewards at the end. It is 
this which, more than any other, makes the lessons of 
the ROYAL ARCH MASON sublime. 

The first of the difficulties of the return journey were 
the trials of the road itself. Upon other pages we have 
given, in our description of the journey to Babylon, 
sketches of the road rendered painful by sharp hills, arid 
deserts, and interminable distances. This is equally ap- 
plicable here. Although the traveler had not the fitter 
accompaniments of chains, cruel guards, and hunger, yet 
no one can pass over the long way of eight hundred 
miles from Babylon to Jerusalem, even under favorable 
circumstances, without intense suffering. The introduc- 
tion of the following Psalms at this stage of the drama 
is highly appropriate: 

"Lord, I cry unto thee : make haste unto me; give 
ear unto my voice, when I cry unto thee. Let my prayer 
be set forth before thee as incense ; and the lifting up 
of my hands as the evening sacrifice. 

"Set a watch, Lord, before my mouth; keep the 


door of my lips. Incline not my heart to any evil thing, 
to practice wicked works with men that work iniquity : 
and let me not eat of their dainties. 

"Let the righteous smite me; it shall be a kindness: 
and let him reprove me; it shall be an excellent oil, 
which shall not break my head: for yet my prayer also 
shall be in their calamities. When their judges are 
overthrown in stony places, they shall hear my words; 
for they are sweet. 

"Our bones are scattered at the grave's mouth, as 
when one cutteth and cleaveth wood upon the earth. 
But mine eyes are unto thee, God the Lord: in thee 
is my trust ; leave not my soul destitute. 

" Keep ni from the snare which they have laid foi 
me, and the gins of the workers of iniquity. Let the 
wicked fall into their own nets, whilst that I withal 
escape." Psalm cxli. 

"I cried unto the Lord with my voice; with my voice 
unto the Lord did I make my supplication. I poured 
out my complaint before him ; I shewed before him my 

"When my spirit was overwhelmed within me, then 
thou knewest my path. In the way wherein I walked 
have they privily laid a snare for me. 

"I looked on my right hand, and beheld, but there 
was no man that would know me : refuge failed me ; no 
man cared for my soul. I cried unto thee, Lord: I 
said, Thou art my refuge and my portion in the land of 
the living. 

"Attend unto my cry; for I am brought very low: 
deliver me from my persecutors; for they are stronger 


than I. Bring my soul out of prison, that I may praise 
thy name : the righteous shall compass me about ; for 
thou shalt deal bountifully with me." Psalm cxlii. 

"Hear my prayer, Lord; give ear to my supplica- 
tions; in thy faithfulness answer me, and in thy right- 
eousness. And enter not into judgment with thy serv- 
ant; for in thy sight shall no man living be justified. 

"For the enemy hath persecuted my soul; he hath 
smitten my life down to the ground; he hath made me 
to dwell in darkness, as those that have been long dead. 
Therefore is my spirit overwhelmed within me ; my heart 
within me is desolate. 

"I remember the days of old; I meditate on all thy 
works; I muse on the work of thy hands. I stretch 
forth my hands unto thee ; my soul thirsteth after thee 
as a thirsty land. Selah. 

"Hear me speedily, Lord: my spirit faileth; hide 
not thy face from me, lest I be like unto them that go 
down into the pit. Cause me to hear thy loving-kind- 
ness in the morning, for in thee do I trust; cause me 
to know the way wherein I should walk, for I lift up 
my soul unto thee. Deliver me, Lord, from mine 
enemies : I flee unto thee to hide me. 

"Teach me to obey thy will; for thou art my God: 
thy Spirit is good; lead me into the land of uprightness. 

" Quicken me, Lord, for thy name's sake ; for thy 
righteousness' sake bring my soul out of trouble. And 
of thy mercy cut off mine enemies, and destroy all them 
that afflict my soul : for I am thy servant." Psalm cxliii, 

The traverse of the long and weary wilderness and 


the mountain-passes being accomplished, trials of a moral 
and religious character are suggested in the drama of the 
ROYAL ARCH. So many of the Jews had intermarried 
with their conquerors that great numbers of the people 
had lost the distinctive characteristic of the nation a 
pure genealogy and were necessarily rejected when 
they should offer themselves for a work that admitted 
none but the pure and undefiled. Before leaving Baby- 
lon, careful examinations had been made of the genea- 
logical claims of every family, and those whose record 
was unquestioned were furnished with tests, by means 
of which they should have recognition of the High-Priest 
at Jerusalem. Of these the Royal Arch traditions are 
full. What the nature of those tests was can not, of 
course, be explained here. 

Arrived at Jerusalem, where a tabernacle had been 
temporarily pitched among the Temple-ruins upon the 
Holy Hill, every person offering himself for the work 
was subjected to necessary examinations preparatory to 
his enrollment among the faithful. 

Recurrence is now had to the history of Moses in his 
work of convincing the Egyptians and the Hebrews of 
his Divinely-appointed mission. Jehovah condescended 
to bestow upon him evidences of his power ; Moses' rod 
was transformed to a serpent. When we enter into the 
world and discover around us the effects of the artifice 
of the tempter in the garden, and when we behold this 
arch-apostate transformed into a serpent, we have passed 
the first veil of our existence. The serpent referred to 
above was perpetuated as a Jewish symbol by Moses, 
who, in a terrible irruption of those venomous creatures 
into his camp, made a Brazen Serpent and set it upon 


a pole, that it might be seen from all parts of the camp, 
and then whoever was bitten was healed by simply look- 
ing at the brazen figure. 

A second miracle was employed by Jehovah to 
strengthen the faith of Moses. He was directed to put 
his hand into his bosom, and when he took it out it was 
leprous as snow. On being commanded to put it the 
second time into his bosom and withdraw it, it was 
turned again as his other flesh. At the close of life, 
when we are called from this probationary scene and 
prostrated in the pallid leprosy of death, the second veil 
is drawn behind us. The leprosy is a loathsome and 
infectious disease, still prevalent in Oriental countries, 
corresponding in its general characteristics with the lep- 
rosy of former ages. The bones and the marrow are so 
pervaded with the virus of the disease that the joints of 
the hands and feet lose their power, the limbs of the 
body fall together, and the whole system assumes a most 
deformed and shocking appearance. There is at this 
day a small village of lepers, numbering in all about two 
hundred, on the outside of the southern wall of Jerusa- 
lem, near the Sion Gate. Their homes are miserable 
huts, low, dark, and loathsome. Allowed to marry only 
with each other, their offspring retain their health until 
arrived at the period of puberty, when the fatal disease 
makes its appearance, spreads over the system, ulti- 
mately reaches some vital organ, and the unhappy victim 

Among the miracles by which Moses convinced Pha- 
raoh of the Divine appointment of his mission, that of 
taking water from the river Nile, and turning it into 
blood by pouring it upon the dry land, was one of the 


most stupendous. In the morning of the Resurrection, 
when the slumbering ashes shall revive, and we learn 
that the words of the woman of Tekoa are ^untrue, 
wherein she said " we are as water spilt upon the ground, 
which can not be gathered up," then shall the third veil 
be parted from us. The effect of this miracle was tre- 
mendous ; the great river of Egypt was turned to blood. 

The leader and governor of the first grand colony 
from Babylon was Prince Zerubbabel. In his name all 
the proceedings were had; the care of the sacred vessels 
intrusted to the Jews by King Cyrus, the money, pro- 
visions, etc., rested upon him. It follows that none could 
be accepted at Jerusalem save those who had come up 
under his patronage. The righteous in the last day will 
have the stamp of the signet of Heaven upon their fore- 
heads, and be received by the Captain of their salvation. 
The prophet Haggai gives clear evidence of the Divine 
acceptance in which Zerubbabel was held when he says, 
44 In that day will I take thee, Zerubbabel, my servant, 
the son of Shealtiel, saith the Lord, and will take thee 
as a signet; for I have chosen thee." A signet was 
usually a ring, with some inscription upon it, used as a 
seal, by the delivery or transfer of which the highest 
offices in the kingdom were bestowed. The word is used 
figuratively in the Bible to denote an act, or token, or 
process of confirmation. 

We have already alluded to the circumstance which 
had impaired the legitimacy of so many of the Jewish 
people. When Esther was made Queen by the King of 
Persia, though exalted to great honor, yet her line was 
thus rendered illegitimate according to the Jewish theory; 
her children could not inherit with their fathers. The 


lineage of every family, or list of ancestors, was pre- 
served by the Jews with extraordinary care not only 
because it was through Abraham that the privileges of 
the Jewish Church were transmitted, but chiefly because 
of the deep interest which was felt in the predictions 
concerning the Messiah, and the tribe or family fr~m 
which he should spring. When, therefore, any presented 
themselves at the tabernacle among the ruins who could 
not distinctly trace up their descent, they were scornfully 
rejected. We have evidences of this in the contempt 
with which the services of the Samaritans were refused 
by Zerubbabel, who said : " Ye have nothing to do with 
us to build our house unto our God;" and in the case of 
a number of the children of priests " who sought their 
register among those that were reckoned by genealogy, 
but they were not found; therefore were they, as pol- 
luted, put from the priesthood." Ezra, ii. 

These sharp tests to which God's people were put, 
secured workmen of fidelity and zeal. No part of the 
labor, however arduous, servile, or protracted, was dis- 
tasteful to them, and they entered upon the work with 
a determination that could have but one result perfect 


THE HIGH-PRIEST. The three principal officers of 
the ROYAL ARCH CHAPTER, as the system is practiced 
in the United States, are known as the High-Priest, 
King, and Scribe. Upon the return of the captives from 
Babylon, Jeshua was High-Priest, a man full of fervency 

THE KING. 189 

and zeal, who took a leading part at Jerusalem in re- 
building the altar of the Lord, and offering burnt-offer- 
ings thereon, as it is written in the law of Moses, the man 
of God. It is further recorded of this devoted servant 
of the Most High, that " In the second year of their 
coming into the house of God at Jerusalem, in the sec- 
ond month, began . . . Jeshua the son of Jozadak, . . , 
and appointed the Levites from twenty years old and up- 
ward to set forward the work of the house of the Lord." 
" Then stood Jeshua with his sons ... to set forward 
the workmen in the house of God." Ezra, iii. 

A further instance of the enlightened zeal of Jeshua 
is seen in his refusing the application of the Samaritans 
and others who proffered to build the Temple with them. 
The High-Priest, knowing their illegitimacy, sternly re- 
plied : " Ye -have nothing to do with us to build a house 
unto our God; but we ourselves together will build unto 
the Lord God of Israel, as Cyrus the king of Persia hath 
commanded us." Ezra, iv. 

represents Zerubbabel, one of the most distinguished 
characters described in Scripture. So prominent a part 
did he take during the period under consideration, in 
leading the first colony of Jews that returned from the 
captivity of Babylon, in preserving the sacred vessels 
intrusted by Cyrus to his charge, in laying the founda- 
tion-stone and cape-stone of the Temple, and in restoring 
the ancient religious rites of the nation, that the second 
Temple is familiarly styled Zerubbabel'a, as the first is 
called Solomon's Temple. In the prophesy of Zechariah 


he is made the special subject of a Divine message. 
" This is the word of the Lord unto Zerubbabel, saying, 
Not by might or power, but by my spirit. Who art thou, 
great mountain? before Zerubbabel thon shalt become 
a plain: and he shall bring forth the headstone thereof 
with shoutings, crying, Grace, grace unto it. Moreover, 
the word of the Lord came unto me, saying, The hands 
of Zerubbabel have laid the foundation of this house; 
his hands shall also finish it; and thou shalt know that 
the Lord of hosts hath sent me unto you. For who 
hath despised the day of small things ? for they shall re- 
joice and shall see the plummet in the hand of Zerub- 
babel." Zechariah, iv. 

An affecting evidence of the Divine approval of this 
man is found in various passages in Haggai, a prophet 
sent with cheering tidings to Jeshua and Zerubbabel at a 
time when the people had begun to show signs of dis- 
couragement. Concerning the latter, Haggai said: "I 
will take thee, Zerubbabel, my servant, saith the Lord, 
and will make thee as a signet; for I have chosen thee, 
saith the Lord of hosts." 

according to the American system, represents the prophet 
Haggai, to whom allusions have been made above. This 
celebrated personage is supposed to have been born 
during the captivity, and to have returned with Zerub- 
babel from Babylon. His prophesy ranks as the thirty- 
seventh in the order of the books of the Old Testament. 
It is principally composed of keen reproof and affecting 
exhortations respecting the building of the second tem- 
ple, which the people had abandoned for fourteen or 


fifteen years, because of the opposition and intrigue of 
their enemies ; and it also contains predictions of Christ 
and the universal establishment of his kingdom. 

It is supposed that the glory of the temple, which is 
predicted by Haggai with great clearness, was to be oc- 
casioned by the coming of Christ; though Herod made 
important alterations in it, still the temple of Zerubbabel 
was always regarded as the second temple, and Christ, 
the Desire of all nations, did appear and teach in it. 

The Book of Haggai well deserves to be read it is 
very brief at every meeting of a ROYAL ARCH CHAPTER. 
As a specimen of the symbolical style and nervous lan- 
guage with which the man of God urged forward his 
companions to their duty. of rebuilding the temple and 
city, see the following : 

"In the four and twentieth day of the ninth month, in 
the second year of Darius, came the word of the Lord 
by Haggai the prophet, saying: Thus saith the Lord of 
hosts, Ask now the priests concerning the law, saying, 
If one bear holy flesh in the skirt of his garment, and 
with his skirt do touch bread, or pottage, or wine, or oil, 
or any meat, shall it be holy ? And the priests answered 
and said, No. Then said Haggai, If one that is unclean 
by a dead body touch any of these, shall it be unclean ? 
And the priests answered and said, It shall be unclean. 
Then answered Haggai, and said, So is this people, and 
so is this nation before me, saith the Lord; and so is 
every work of their hands; and that which they offer 
there is unclean. And now, I pray you, consider from this 
day and upward, from before a stone was laid upon a 
stone in the temple of the Lord: since those days were, 


when one came to a heap of twenty measures, there 
were but ten; when one came to the press-fat for to 
draw out fifty vessels out of the press, there were but 
twenty. I smote you with blasting and with mildew and 
with hail in all the labors of your hanc[s; yet ye turned 
not to me, saith the Lord. Consider now from this day 
and upward, from the four and twentieth day of the 
ninth month, even from the day that the foundation of. 
the Lord's temple was laid, consider it. Is the seed 
yet in the barn? yea, as yet the vine, and the fig-tree, 
and the pomegranate, and the olive-tree, hath not brought 
forth: from this day will I bless you." Haggai, ii. 

OFFICIAL DUTIES. The official duties of these three 
prominent officers of the ROYAL ARCH CHAPTER respect- 
ively are made as nearly as possible in analogy with 
those of the Jewish dispensation. The High-Priest is 
solemnly inducted with the following prayer : 

"Most Holy and glorious Lord God, the Great High- 
Priest of heaven and earth, we approach thee with rever- 
ence, and implore thy blessings on the Companion ap- 
pointed to preside over this assembly, and now prostrate 
before thee. Fill his heart with fear, that his tongue and 
actions may pronounce thy glory. Make him steadfast 
in thy service. Grant him firmness of mind; animate his 
heart and strengthen his endeavors. May he teach thy 
judgments and thy laws; and may the incense he shall 
put before thee, upon thine altar, prove an acceptable 
sacrifice unto thee. Bless him, Lord, and bless the 
work of his hands. Accept us in mercy. Hear thou, 
from heaven, thy dwelling-place, and forgive our trans- 


gressions. Glory be to God the Father, as it was in 
the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without 
end. Amen." 

The High-Priest is then invested with the miter, 
breast-plate, and robe : the former reminding him of the 
dignity of his office and its inscription, "Holiness to the 
Lord" of his dependence upon God; the breast-plate 
teaching him his responsibility to the laws of Royal 
Arch Masonry, and that its honor should ever be near 
his heart; the robes teaching him, by their symbolical 
colors, every grace and virtue that can beautify the hu- 
man mind, 

The King is taught by his scarlet robe, an emblem 
of imperial dignity, that paternal concern which he 
should feel for the welfare of his Chapter, and the ar- 
dent zeal with which he should endeavor to promote its 
prosperity; and by his crown, that to reign sovereign in 
the hearts and affections of men is made grateful to a 
generous mind, than to rule over their lives and fortunes, 
and that to do this with honor and satisfaction he must 
subject his own passions and prejudices to the dominion 
of reason and charity. 

The Scribe is taught by his purple robe, an emblem 
of union, that the harmony and unanimity of the Chap- 
tei must be his care, and that he must endeavor to es- 
tablish a permanent union among all degrees and orders 
in Masonry. 

In the conclusion of the respective charges, a general 
address is delivered to the officers, as follows: 

"Precept and example should ever advance with equal 


pace. Those moral duties which you are required to teach 
unto others you should never neglect to practice your- 
selves. Do you desire that the demeanor of your equals 
and inferiors toward you should be marked with defer- 
ence and respect? Be sure, then, that you omit no op- 
portunity of furnishing them with examples in your own 
conduct toward your superiors. Do you desire to obtain 
instruction from those who are more wise or better in- 
formed than yourselves? Be sure, then, that you are 
always ready to impart of your knowledge to those 
within your sphere who stand in need of and are en- 
titled to receive it. Do you desire distinction among 
your Companions ? Be sure, then, that your claims to 
preferment are founded upon superior attainments. Let 
no ambitious passion be suffered to induce you to envy 
or supplant a companion who may be considered as 
better qualified for promotion than yourselves; but rather 
let a laudable emulation induce you to strive to excel 
each other in improvement and discipline, ever remem- 
bering that he who faithfully performs his duty, even in 
a subordinate or private station, is as justly entitled to 
esteem and respect as he who is invested with supreme 

In further allusion to these characters, the Scriptural 
accounts of the office of High-Priest established him as 
the head of the Jewish priesthood. All the mole de- 
scendants of Aaron were by divine appointment conse- 
crated to the priesthood; and the first-born of the family, 
in regular succession, was consecrated in the same man- 
ner to the office of High-Priest. The office was origi- 
nally held for life, but this, as well as the right of the 


firstborn, were disregarded in the latter ages of the 
Jewish nation. The High-Priest's most solemn, peculiar, 
and exclusive duty was to officiate in the Most Holy 
Place on the great day of atonement. He might at any 
time perform the duties assigned to the ordinary priests, 
but this one could be performed by himself alone. The 
High-Priest is supposed to have had an assistant to oc- 
cupy his place in case of his incompetency from sick- 
ness, defilement, or otherwise. 

The title King is that of a ruler. It is often applied 
in Scripture to the chief of a tribe, or the ruler of a 
single town or city. The title is preeminently applied 
to Jehovah and to our blessed Savior. 

The term Scribe is first given to the king's secretary 
or messenger, and to such as excelled in the use of the 
pen; but, in time, it came to mean simply a learned man. 
It was the peculiar office of the priests and Levites not 
only to study the book of the law with great diligence, 
and to read and explain it to the congregation, but to 
transcribe it and to multiply copies among the nation at 
large. The scribes and the doctors of the law are terms 
often applied to the same class of people. 


The spirit of freedom, fervency, and zeal with which 
the labors of the ROYAL ARCH CHAPTER are supposed to 
be conducted, is conveyed in the following extracts from 
Paul's stirring exhortation to the Church at Thessalonica. 
This passage is statedly used in every Chapter of ROYAL 


"Now we command you, brethren, in the name of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, that ye withdraw yourselves from 
every brother that walketh disorderly, and not after the 
tradition which he received from us. For yourselves 
know how ye ought to follow us : for we behaved not 
ourselves disorderly among you; neither did we eat any 
man's bread for naught; but wrought with labor and 
travail night and day, that we might not be chargeable 
to any of you: not because we have not power, but to 
make ourselves an example unto you to follow us. 

"For even when we were with you, this we com- 
manded you, that if any would not work, neither should 
he eat. 

"For we hear that there are some which walk among 
you disorderly, working not at all, but are busy-bodies. 

"Now them that are such we command and exhort by 
our Lord Jesus Christ, that with quietness they work, 
and eat their own bread. 

"But ye, brethren, be not weary in well-doing. 

"And if any man obey not our word by this epistle, 
note that man, and have no company with him, that he 
may be ashamed. 

"Yet count him not as an enemy, but admonish him 
as a brother. 

"Now the Lord of peace himself give you peace 
always by all means. The Lord be with you all. 

"The salutation of Paul with mine own hand, which 
is the token in every epistle : so I write. 

" The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all. 
Amen." 2 Thessalonians, iii. 

These exhortations convey the whole theory of the 


ROYAL ARCH. The Veils of the Sanctuary, which make 
so prominent a display in the Chapter, suggest the most 
expansive benevolence, the most endearing union, the 
most transcendent zeal, the most spotless purity. The 
high value given to the Law ever open upon the Altar, 
the sight of the Ark, with its impressed traditions, the 
Pauline exhortations so charged with the very spirit of 
Divine love all these combine to make the dramatic ex- 
ercises healthful to the soul and conscience. 

The following lines are among the older odes appro- 
priated to this grade: 

Joy, the Sacred Law is found : 

Now the Temple stands complete; 
' Gladly let us gather round 

Where the Pontiff holds his seat. 

Now he spreads the volume wide, 

Opening forth the leaves to-day; 
And the Monarch by his side 

Gazes on the bright display. 

Joy, the Secret Vault is found ; 

Full the sunbeams fall within, 
Pointing darkly under ground, 

To the treasure we would win. 

They have brought it back to light, 

And again it cheers the earth; 
All its leaves are purely bright, 

Thriving in their newest worth. 

This shall be the sacred Mark 

Which shall guide us to the skieaj 

Bearing like a holy Ark 
All the hearts who love to rise. 


This shall be the Corner-stone 
Which the builders threw away, 

But was found the only one 
Fitted for the Arch's stay. 

This shall be the Gavel true, 

At whose sound the crowd shall bend, 

Giving to the Law its due; 

This shall be the faithful friend. 

This the Token that shall bring 
Kindness to the rich and poor; 

Hastening on, on angel's wing, 
To the lone and darksome door. 

. This shall crown the mighty Arch 

When the Temple springs on high, 
And the Brethren bend their march 
Wafting Incense to the sky. 

Then the solemn strain shall swell 
From the bosom and the tongue, 

And the Master's glory tell 
In the harmony of song. 

Here the exile, o'er the waste, 

Trudging homeward shall repose; 

All his toil and danger past, 

Here his long sojournings close. 

Entering through the Sacred Veils 
To the holy cell he bends; 

Then, as sinking nature fails, 
Hope in glad fruition ends. 


In our sketch of the official duties of the High-Priest, 
a brief allusion was made to the emblematical bearing 


rff his robes: "They taught him, by these symbolical col- 
ors, every grace and virtue that can beautify the human 
mind." Much is said in Scripture relative to the splen- 
did and costly costume of the High-Priest. It was maeh 
more magnificent than that of the inferior order of 
priests. A description of it is best given in the words of 
Scripture : 

" And of the blue, and purple, and scarlet, they made 
clothes of service, to do service in the holy place, and 
made the holy garments for Aaron; as the Lord com- 
manded Moses. 

"And he made the ephod of gold, blue, purple, and 
scarlet, and fine-twined linen. 

"And they did beat the gold into thin plates, and cut it 
into wires, to work it in the blue, and in the purple, and 
in the scarlet, and in the fine linen, with cunning work. 

"They made shoulder-pieces for it, to couple it to- 
gether : by the two edges was it coupled together. 

" And the curious girdle of his ephod, that was upon 
it, was of the same, according to the work thereof, of 
gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen ; 
as the Lord commanded Moses. 

"And they wrought onyx-stones inclosed in ouches 
of gold, graven as signets are graven, with the names of 
the children of Israel. 

" And he put them on the shoulders of the ephod, that 
they should be stones for a memorial to the children of 
Israel; as the Lord commanded Moses. 

"And he made the breast-plate of cunning work, like 
the work of the ephod ; of golc^ blue, and purple, and 
t, and fine twined linen. 


"It was four-square; they made the breast-plate 
double: a span was the length thereof, and a span the 
breadth thereof, being doubled." Exodus, xxxix. 

In addition to this description, which is elaborated in 
the subsequent verses, we may add that the ephod con- 
sisted of two plates, the one covering the back, the other 
the breast, both being united upon the two shoulders. 
It is sometimes described as having been thrown over 
the shoulders and hanging down before, crossed upon 
the breast. Upon the place where it crossed the breast 
was the breast-plzlte. This was a piece of embroidered 
work about ten inches square, with a front and lining to 
answer as a pouch. It was adorned with precious stones, 
described below. The upper corners were fastened to 
the ephod, from which it was not to be loosed : the two 
lower corners to the girdle. The breast-plate was called 
the Memorial, because it reminded the priest of his rep- 
resentative character in relation to the Twelve Tribes, 
and it was called the Breast-plate of Judgment, prob- 
ably because worn by him who was instrumentally the 
fountain of judgment and justice to the Jewish Church. 

The miter, or head-dress, was formed of eight yards 
of fine linen in circular folds, and inscribed in front, 
upon a plate of pure gold, the words " Holiness to the 

The terms "Urim and Thummim" are associated with 
the breast-plate; but whether they denoted some Divine 
manifestation made in or upon the breast-plate itself, or 
whether it was a visible appendage to the breast-plate, 
indicating its peculiar and sacred use in this respect, is 


not known. The words literally signify "Lights and 
Perfections." The utmost that can be satisfactorily 
known respecting the subject is, that it was a manner 
or thing through which a knowledge of the Divine will 
was sought and conveyed. The twelve stones in the 
breast-plate were a sardius, topaz, carbuncle, the first 
row; emerald, sapphire, diamond, second row; ligure, 
agate, amethyst, third row; beryl, onyx, jasper, fourth 
and lower row. 

Viewing these grand and enlivening symbolisms, the 
"enlightened Freemason can not but wish his lot had been, 
cast in the days when Freemasons were operative as well 
as speculative, and when God spoke through the myste- 
rious TJrim and Thummim as a man speaketh to his 
neighbor, face to face. In that spirit the following lines 
are offered: 

Give me the Faith my fathers had, 

When home-worn ties were cast, 
In stern contempt, forever back, 

Like chaff upon the blast. 
These prayers, lip-measured, leave me chill, 
As icy fount sends icy rill; 
No passion bidding nature start, 
No fire struck out to warm the heart; 
There's nothing left to make me glad, 
Give me the Faith my fathers had. 

A patriot now is bought and sold 

For price; but give to me 
The hopes that traced the hearts of old 

My fathers' Liberty. 

What's fine-drawn speech and wordy war? 
A candle-ray to freedom's star I 


The hand to hilt, the sword abroad, 
The flag to heaven, the heart to God, 
These are the tokens I would see; 
Give me my fathers' Liberty. 

Give my fathers' walk below: 
No artful mind was theirs, 
To compass kindred hearts about 

With treachery and snares ; 
No nets of artifice they spread 
To lure the innocent to tread ; 
Life's blessings they so freely shared, 
Life's fears they boldly met and dared; 
A blameless life, a death sublime, 
These were the things of olden time. 

Give me the friendships that entwined 

The upright trunks of yore, 
The tendrils that so sweetly vined 

In beauty and in power. 
My heart is sad to think this earth, 
With all its jo}', with all its mirth, 
Has lost the chain our fathers wove- 
The chain of holy, holy love ; 
Has lost the path our fathers trod- 
The path that led them up to God. 

0, then, bring back the palmy days 

Of innocence and truth, 
When honesty was in its prime, 

And selfishness in youth ; 
When man allowed to man his place, 
When probity unbared its face, 
When Justice poised an equal scale, 
When faith sang through the dying wail; 
Away, this age of care and crime 
Give me the days of olden time ! 



All that can be known of the Temple of Zerubbabel 
is, that, in style of architecture, it was as nearly as pos- 
sible a copy of that which had been destroyed by Nebu- 
chadnezzar nearly ninety years before. This Temple, in 
general form, resembled the Tabernacle, elaborately de- 
scribed upon another page. It was a substitute for the 
Tabernacle, which was only adapted to a wayfaring peo- 
ple, and was the great center of the same system of 
ceremonial worship. It was built upon Mount Moriah. 
This was one summit of a range of hills, ,the general 
name of which was Mount Sion. Beginning on the 
north, the ridge bears the name of Bezetha, then Mo- 
riah, then Ophel, the latter running down to the junc- 
tion of the ravine termed the Tyropoeon with the valley 
of Jehoshaphat. Mount Moriah has an altitude of about 
four hundred feet above the valley on the east. 

The idea of building a Temple was suggested to the 
mind of David by the contemplation of his own good 
fortune, the general state of prosperity to which his 
country had arrived, and his fraternal relations with the 
Phoenician King Hiram, whose dominions afforded suit- 
able wood and his subjects suitable workmen for the 
edifice. It became to David an object of lively and un- 
ceasing interest; and although he was not permitted by 
the Almighty to take a single step in its erection, yet 
he collected during the latter years of his reign precious 
metals to the value of many billions of dollars, besides 
immense quantities of brass, iron, stone, lumber, etc., 
and secured skillful artificers for every branch of the 


work. He also furnished the design, plan, and location 
o'f the building, in all which he was Divinely instructed. 

The. superintendence of the building was committed to 
his wise son Solomon, who in the fourth year of his 
reign laid the foundation-stone and began the work. Of 
laborers, native and foreign, there were in all 183,600. 
30,000 of these were Jews, who worked in rotation 
10,000 a month. 153,600 of them were Phoenicians; 
viz., 70,000 bearers of burdens, 80,000 hewers in wood 
and stone, and 3,600 overseers. The parts were all pre- 
pared at a distance from the site of the building, and 
when they were brought together, the whole immense 
structure was erected without the sound of ax, hammer, 
or any tool of iron. At the end of seven and one-half 
years it stood complete in all its splendor, the glory of 
Jerusalem, and the most magnificent edifice in the world. 

The Temple, like the Tabernacle, had its front toward 
the east. The porch or portico extended across the 
whole front, projecting fifteen feet from the main build- 
ing, and rising to the height of one hundred and eighty 
feet. Upon the sides and rear of the main building was 
an additional building of three stories, each nearly eight 
feet high. This structure was about half the height of 
the Temple, and, though built against the walls, was not 
fastened into them. It was divided into apartments like 
chambers, which opened into the gallery that surrounded 
it. There was a flight of stairs on the south side which 
led into the second story, and another leading from the 
second into the third. The whole building and its en- 
virons were entered by two courts. The inner court, 
called the Court before the Temple, or the Court of the 
Priests, corresponded generally with the Court of the 


Tabernacle, as did also the sacred apartments, furniture, 
and utensils. 

The Temple of Solomon was destroyed by Nebuchad- 
nezzar, four hundred and twenty-four years after its 
completion. A second edifice, in breadth and 'height 
twice the size of Solomon's, was erected by Zerubbabel, 
being completed seventy-three years after the destruction 
of the last. But this lacked five -great essentials of the 
other; viz., the Ark, the Mercy-seat, the Sacred Fire, 
the Urim and Thummim, and the visible revelation of 
the Divine glory, termed the Sheekinah. It was never 
blessed, either, with the spirit of prophesy like the former. 
This Temple stood without alteration for nearly five 
hundred years, when it became much decayed, and 
Herod the Great undertook its restoration. So large 
were the alterations made that it was in effect almost a 
new structure. He began the work seventeen years be- 
fore Christ, and in less than ten years completed the 
main edifice, so that it could be occupied. The whole 
work occupied forty-six years. 

The dimensions and description of this Temple are 
recorded in history with considerable minuteness. The 
outer wall, inclosing the whole, was about one-eighth of 
a mile square, and stood nearly forty feet about the 
ground. This wall being built up from the valley be- 
neath, was, in places, six hundred or even seven hundred 
feet in height. In these walls were seven massive and 
costly gates, each fifteen feet wide and thirty high; an 
additional one in the east, termed the Beautiful Gate, 
was seventy-five feet high, of the finest metal, highly 
polished, and richly adorned. Piazzas stood against the 
wall clear around the hill, supported on the back by the 


wall itself, in front by a double row of columns ; on the 
south side the supports were three rows of columns. 
The porch on the east side was called Solomon's. 

The larger part of the area within these walls was 
vacant ground, completely paved with marble, and called 
the Court of the Gentiles, because all classes of persons 
were at liberty to enter it; but beyond the wall which 
separated this from the. next court none but Jews could 
pass, under penalty of death. 

The second court was inclosed by a wall, and termed 
the Court of the Women, because this was the nearest 
approach to the Temple that women could make, save 
when they brought a sacrifice. Here was the treasury, 
and this was the place where some of our Savior's most 
impressive discourses were delivered. 

The next court toward the Sanctuary was the Court of 
Israel. The outer half of this court, which was separated 
from the inner by a low railing, was entered by common 
Israelite's to attend upon particular services of religion; 
but the inner half, next to the Sanctuary, was called the 
Court of the Priests, into which none save the tribe of 
Levi could enter, unless when he came to offer his sacri- 
fice before the altar. Even our Savior, who was of the 
tribe of Judah, had no privileges here more than the 
most ordinary Israelite; and wherever it is recorded of 
him that he entered the Temple, must be understood as 
confined to the outer part of the Court of Israel. Within 
the Court of the Priests stood the Altar of Burnt-Offer- 
ing and the Brazen Laver. 

Next came the Sanctuary, the materials of which were 
beautiful and costly beyond description. It was ninety 
feefc high, ninety feet long, and thirty feet wide, divided 


into two compartments, separated from each other by a 
curtain or veil. One of these was termed the Holy 
Place, which occupied sixty feet of the whole length, and 
in which were the altar of incense, the golden candle- 
stick, and the table of shew-bread; the other was the 
Most Holy Place, which measured thirty feet each way. 
Around the Sanctuary, on all sides except in front, was 
a structure of three stories high, like that attached to 
the first Temple, as before described, and a vast Porch 
extended along the front. The Porch was one hundred 
and fifty feet long, thirty wide, and at its highest eleva- 
tion nearly one hundred and eighty feet. The majestic 
entrance to this Porch was one hundred and thirty-five 
feet by thirty-seven; it had no door. 

This Temple was razed to its foundations by the Ro- 
mans A. D. 70-1, and the site of it was made like a 
planed field. 

The present inclosure of Mount Moriah, measured on 
four sides, is, on the east, 1,523J feet; south, 916; west, 
1,600; north, 1,038. The surface of the hill has a gen- 
eral declination toward the south and east. The walls 
at their base are about nine feet thick, and average fifty 
feet in height; at the south-east corner, seventy-seven 
feet. The walls rise twelve to fifteen feet above the hill. 
In the east wall is a magnificent gate, fifty -five feet wide, 
long since closed; no other gate appears in the east or 
south w r alls. The west wall has eight gates, the north 
three. There are three principal edifices within the 
Temple area, all being used for purposes of religion by 
the Turks. One near the south-western corner is termed 
Mosque El-Aksa. It is two hundred and eighty feet long 
by one hundred and eighty-three broad, and at its high- 


est rises to about seventy feet. A domed building in the 
south-east corner is termed Sidna Issa. A number of 
smaller edifices are along the southern wall. 

In the center, and traditionally over the site once 
occupied by the Temples of Solomon, Zerubbabel, and 
Herod successively, is Kubbet es-Sakhrah, or the Mosque 
of Omar. This stands upon a marble-paved platform 
ten feet high, which is ascended through eight portals, 
of Saracenic style, some of which are truly elegant. The 
Mosque is one hundred and seventy feet in diameter, and 
the same in height. The lower story or main body of 
the building is a true octagon, sixty-seven feet on a side 
and forty -six feet high; the central and elevated portion 
is circular. There are four doors and four porches, each 
facing a cardinal point, the southern one affording the 
main entrance. Immediately beneath the center of the 
dome is a singular object, being a portion of the original 
rock, which every-where else was levelled off when the 
surface of the mountain was first prepared under the eye 
of Solomon. This venerable relic, for what purpose left 
can only be conjectured, is sixty feet long from north to 
south, and fifty-five broad. Rising five feet above the 
marble platform, described above, the body of this frag- 
ment is about fifteen feet high. In its south-east corner 
is an apartment, chiseled from the solid rock, fifteen 
feet square and eight feet high, with a roof five feet 
thick; below this there is reason to believe another such 
excavation exists, such, perhaps, as the traditions of 

To this, then, have the ancient glories of Mount Mo- 
riah come! after alternations of nearly three thousand 
years, Jerusalem having been seventeen times destroyed 


and rebuilt, all the wealth, the talent, the free-will offer- 
ings, the religious fervor, and the Masonic traditions of 
a hundred generations are reduced to a few semi-heathen 
mosques, a false ritual of worship, a ruined city, and a 
desolate land. How long, Lord, how long? 


A collection of Masonic implements, furniture, jewels, 
etc., is a synopsis, emblematically conveyed, of the whole 
purpose of the Masonic Institution. These things remind 
the officers of their power and jurisdiction, warning them 
not to abuse their position, limiting their jurisdiction, and 
prescribing their conduct. They afford to them, and 
equally to the membership, copious topics of advice. A 
brother of any grade may descant upon the excellence 
of the Holy Writings as a rule of life, for those writings 
teach us that, being born upon a level, we should act upon 
a square, circumscribe our desires within the compass 
of nature's gifts poured from the horn of Divine plenty. 
He may learn therefrom to walk uprightly, suffering 
neither the pressure of poverty nor the avarice of riches 
to tempt the heart, even for a moment, to swerve from 
the line of rectitude suspended before them from the 
center of heaven. The division of time into equal and 
regular portions is to him a sure rule for securing the 
greatest good from the opportunities that are daily af- 
forded him. The subjection of his passions and desires 
is too clearly taught to be misunderstood, and from his 
entrance through the north-western portals of the Lodge 
to the hour when he is carried by a sorrowing brother- 
hood to his final resting-place, every thing around him 


in Lodge, Chapter, Council, and Commandery, is a con- 
stant admonition of death, and the necessity for an early 

THE ARK. In the grades of Most Excellent Master, 
ROYAL ARCH MASON, and others following, the Ark be- 
comes a prominent emblem. The original of this was 
constructed by Moses while on the way from Egypt to 
Canaan. It was a small chest made for a specific pur- 
pose, by the express command of Jehovah. It was three 
feet and nine inches long, two feet and three inches wide, 
the same in height. It was made of shittim wood, which 
is the Masonic Acacia, playing so important a part in 
the drama of the Master Mason, and was covered with 
plates of gold. A border or crown of gold encircled it 
near the top, and it was surmounted by the mercy-seat, 
which was of 'solid gold, and answered the purpose of a 
cover or lid to the ark. It will be seen by this descrip- 
tion, which is a literal transcript from Biblical accounts, 
how unlike the proper form is the Ark usually found in 
our ROYAL ARCH assemblies. On each end of the mercy- 
seat was placed a golden image, representing a cherub 
facing upward and bending down over the Ark. Two 
wings of gold were attached to the body of the Ark on 
each side, through which passed the staves or poles that 
were used in carrying it from place to place. These 
were made of the same wood with the Ark, and overlaid 
in the same manner. 

In the Ark Moses placed a golden pot, containing three 
quarts of manna ; Aaron's rod, which miraculously bud- 
ded, blossomed, and yielded fruit at once; and the tables 
of the testimony, otherwise called the tables of the Ten 
Commandments. But we learn, from 1 Kings, viii, that 

THE ARK. 211 

when it was placed in the Sanctum Sanctorum of Solo- 
man's Temple, " there was nothing in the Ark, save the 
two tables of stone." 

On the mercy-seat, which surmounted the Ark, rested 
the awful and mysterious symbol of the Divine presence. 

The Temple of Zerubbabel did not contain the Ark. 
Whether it was seized among the spoils when the city 
was sacked, or whether it was secreted and afterward 
destroyed, history does not inform us. The traditions of 
Freemasonry only partially supply this hiatus in Scrip- 
ture account. 

Some comment upon the original contents of the Ark 
may be expected. The Holy Writings have been alluded 
to in various parts of this work. As the term was under- 
stood by Moses, it comprised only the Ten Commandments. 
As successive additions were made by himself, by Samuel, 
by Ezra, and perhaps others, the Holy Writings increased 
in number to embrace thirty-nine different works under 
the Old Dispensation. The New Testament Scriptures, 
numbering twenty-seven works, makes the complete cat- 
alogue of sixty-six. The older portion was conveniently 
divided by Jewish authors into the Law, the Prophets, 
and the Psalms. In American Lodges and Chapters the 
connected series of Old and New Testament Scriptures 
are always used; but the opened pages are invariably in 
the Old Testament. An account of the loss of the Holy 
Writings during the later years of the Jewish monarchy,^ 
and of their recovery under the good king Josiah, is 
given in 2 Chronicles, xxxiv. The Pot of Manna is re- 
ferred to in Exodus, xvi: "Moses said, This is the thing 
which the Lord commandeth, Fill an omer of it to be 
kept for your generations; that they may see the bread 


wherewith I have kept you in the wilderness when I 
brought you forth from the land of Egypt. And Moses 
said unto Aaron, Take a pot, and put an omer full of 
manna therein, and lay it up before the Lord, to be kept 
for your generations. As the Lord commanded Moses, 
so Aaron laid it up before the testimony, to be kept." 
This manna was a substance miraculously furnished to 
the children of Israel on their journey through the wil- 
derness, and designed as a substitute for bread, the ma- 
terial for which they could not raise during their journey- 
ings. It is called "the bread rained from heaven." 

The most remarkable things about the manna of the 
Israelites were, that double the quantity was supplied on 
the sixth day of the week, so that no one need break 
the Sabbath by going out in search of it; that on the 
Sabbath no manna fell from heaven ; and that what they 
kept from the sixth to the seventh day remained sweet, 
while that kept from any other became offensive. All 
three of these miracles were wrought to attest the sanc- 
tity of the Sabbath. It is described as a small, round 
thing, as small as the hoar-frost on the ground, like co- 
riander-seed, white, and the taste of it like wafers made 
with honey. It was ground in mills or beaten in a mor- 
tar, then placed in pans, in the shape of cakes, and baked. 
In gathering this food, each person was permitted to take 
what was necessary for his own use, not exceeding an 
omer, or about three quarts, for each member the family. 
If more was collected, the surplus was distributed to 
those who had less. 

For forty years this miraculous supply of food was 
furnished daily to between three and four millions of 
people. It ceased while they were encamped at Gilgal, 

THE KEY. 213 

immediately after they had celebrated the passover for 
tfie first time in the land of promise. 

The emblem of Aaron's Rod is suggestive to a Free- 
mason of the progress of nature from youth to man- 
hood, and from manhood to trembling decrepitude. Soon 
do the buds of infancy bloom on the cheek of youth; 
soon are the blossoms of time succeeded by the fruits of 


The emblem of the Key may be improved to impress 
upon the mind of a ROYAL ARCH MASON the importance 
of those secrets which have been transmitted through 
thirty centuries, amidst bitter persecutions, for the benefit 
of the Sons of Light. As we have thus received them, 
untarnished by the touch of profane curiosity, and un- 
impaired by the revolution of time and human events, so 
must we deliver them, in all their purity and perfection, 
to the brethren who shall come after us, confident that 
they will never be divulged to the unworthy. The Key 
is an emblem often referred to in Scripture. 


Allusion has been made upon another page to the use 
of these emblems. The traditions of Freemasonry are 
uniform, that the greatest possible care was exercised at 
the building of the Temple of Solomon, that every block 
should be made of exact dimensions to fill a specified 
place in the wall. Nor was it left to the fidelity and 
vigilance of one man, or the skill and implement of one 
man, to decide upon this; three persons at least passed 


judgment upon every ashlar before it went into the 
hands of him who was to cement it within the wall. 
The emblematical application of this is too apparent to 
need explanation. In practice no person can be ad- 
mitted a member of the Masonic Order in any grade 
until he has passed the trying square of every person 
present at the ballot-test; a single objection would be 
fatal to his admission. 


Since the fiat of Heaven has gone forth, In the sweat 
of thy face shalt thou eat bread, it becomes us cheerfully 
to submit, laboring industriously in our respective call- 
ings. Labor is honorable, and to none more so than 
those who properly comprehend the theory of this grade. 
The pickax, crowbar, and spade are emblems suggesting 
to our minds the source from which come our food, me- 
tallic wealth, fuel, and other necessaries of life. They 
remind us, too, that we are of the earth, earthy, and 
that our bodies, when the purpose is accomplished for 
which we were placed on earth, will return to dust. 


WE'LL lay thee down where thou shalt sleep 

All tenderly and brotherly, 
And woman's eyes with ours shall weep 

The -precious drops of sympathy; 
We'll spread above the cedar boughs, 

Whose emerald hue and rich perfume 
Shall make thee deem thy resting-place 

A downy bed, and not a tonib. 


That breast which hath supplied 

Thy wants from earliest infancy, 
Shall open fondly and supply 

Unbroken rest and sleep to thee; 
Each spring the flower-roots shall send up 

Their painted emblems toward the sky, 
To bid thee wait upon thy. couch 

A little longer patiently. 

"We'll not forget thee, we who stay 

To work a little longer here; 
Thy name, thy faith, thy love shall lie 

On memory's tablets bright and clear; 
And when o'erwearied by the toil 

Of life our heavy limbs shall be, 
We'll come, and one by one lie down 

Upon dear mother earth with thee. 

There we will slumber by thy side; 

There, reunited 'neath the sod, 
We'll wait, nor doubt in His good time 

To feel the raising hand of God; 
To be translated from this earth, 

This land of sorrow and complaints, 
To the Celestial Lodge above, 

Whose Master is the King of Saints ! 


Although no one is entitled to receive the Order of 
High-Priesthood save a ROYAL ARCH MASON who has 
been regularly elected to preside over a Chapter of 
ROYAL ARCH MASONS, yet there is so much in relation 
, to it that will interest the Masonic reader, that we ap- 
pend a synopsis of the theory, purposes, and instruc- 
tions of the Decree. It bears the same relation to the 


Capitular system of Masonry that the Degree of Past 
Master bears to the Symbolical. 

The Degree is conferred in a Council of High-Priests, 
of which the officers are President, Vice-President, Chap- 
lain, Treasurer, Secretary, Master of Ceremonies, Con- 
ductor, Herald, and Sentinel. There is nothing in the 
robes, jewels, or decorations distinct from those em- 
ployed in a Royal Arch Chapter. Not less than three 
members must be present to participate in the ceremo- 

The drama has reference to circumstances which oc- 
curred in the life of the Patriarch Abraham. In an in- 
vasion of the country around the Dead Sea by four east- 
ern kings, his nephew Lot had be6n taken prisoner. 
Upon being informed of this, Abraham gathered what 
force was at his command, pursued the marauders, over- 
took them at Hobah, north of Damascus, and rescued 
Lot out of their hands. Returning to his abode, near 
Hebron, he was saluted, as he passed by Jerusalem, with 
blessings and good cheer from the venerable Melchisedec, 
Priest of the Most High God, who abode there. It has 
ever been one of the hidden problems of Scripture his- 
tory who this man was, a mystery still further obscured 
by the strange language of Paul, who, in Hebrews vii, 
describes him, in symbolical terms, as "without father, 
without mother, without descent, having neither begin- 
ning of days nor end of life." But the theory that 
Melchisedec was Shem, the oldest son of Noah, who is 
supposed to have been alive at this period, has able sup- 
porters, and is the most likely of all. 

In acknowledgment of the priestly dignity and more 
than Oriental hospitality of Melchisedec, displayed to- 


ward him "at the valley of Shaveh, which is the king's 
dale," Abraham paid him tithes of all the property he 
had rescued from the marauders, and received from his 
hands this sublime benediction: "Blessed be Abram of 
the most high God, possessor of heaven and earth; and 
blessed be the most high God which hath delivered thine 
enemies into thy hand." 

As this is the oldest formula of a priestly benediction 
extant, the circumstance is made the foundation of an 
impressive and instructive Degree, whose covenants are 
prepared with uncommon force, whose means of recogni- 
tion are exceedingly practicable and brief, and which, by 
teaching respect to the name of the Most High, benevo- 
lence to suffering brethren, and the duty of curbing those 
passions which tend to evil, is worthy of more study than 
it has heretofore received. The accompanying prayer 
is worthy of the connection : 

"0 thou supreme High-Priest of heaven and earth, 
enlighten us, we beseech thee, with the knowledge of 
thy truth, and grant that the members of this conven- 
tion, and all others who are teachers in Israel, may be 
endowed with wisdom to understand and to explain the 
mysteries of our Order. Be with us in all our assem- 
blies; guide us in the paths of rectitude, and enable us 
to keep all thy statutes and commandments while life 
shall last, and finally bring us to the true knowledge of 
thy holy and mighty name." 

The prayer at anointing the candidate is equally ap- 
propriate : 


"0 Thou, who doth bless the fruitage of the olive and 
the vine to man's use, and doth give him refreshment 
and joy for his labor, bless now in a spiritual sense, we 
entreat thee, this application of oil and wine, that they 
may represent the times of refreshment from on high 
which thou wilt bestow upon thy faithful laborers in 
the moral vineyard. Give to all thy workmen courage 
and strength. Increase their zeal. Awaken them to the 
value of thy promises, that when the toils of life are 
ended they may hear thy welcome plaudits, < Well done, 
good and faithful servants; enter ye into the joy of your 
Lord.' Amen." 

The benediction employed in this, grade of High- 
Priesthood is the Aaronic blessing: 

"The Lord bless thee and help thee; the Lord. make 
his face to shine upon thee, and be gracious unto thee; 
the Lord lift up his countenance upon thee, and give 
thee peace." 


The following is the oldest effusion extant, prepared 
to accompany the conferring of the grade of Royal Arch 
according to the American system. The suggestions and 
allusions to the esoterical matters of the grade are suf- 
ficiently obvious to the informed companion: 

When Orient wisdom beamed serene, 

And pillowed strength arose, 
When beauty tinged the glowing scene, 

And faith her mansion chose, 


Exulting hands the fabric viewed, 

Mysterious powers adored, 
And high the triple union stood 

That gave. the Mystic Word. 

Pale envy withered at the sight 

And frowning o'er the pile, 
Called murder up from realms of light, 

To blast the glorious toil. 
With ruffian outrage joined in woe, 

They form the league abhorred, 
And wounded science felt the blow 

That crushed the Mystic Word. 

Concealment from sequestered care 

On sable pinions (lew, 
And o'er the sacrilegious grave 

Her veil impervious threw; 
The associate band in solemn slate 

The awful loss deplored, 
And wisdom mourned the ruthless fate 

That whelmed the Mystic Word. 

At length through time's expanded sphere 

Fair science speeds her way; 
And warmed by truth's refulgence clear, 

Reflects the kindred ray. 
A second fabric's towering height 

Proclaims the sign restored, 
From whose foundation brought to light 

Is drawn the Mystic Word. 

To depths obscure the favored trine 

A dreary course engage 
Till through the Arch the ray divine 

Illumes the sacred page: 
From the wide wonders of this blaze 

Our ancient signs restored, 
The ROYAL ARCH alone displays 

The long-lost MYSTIC WORD ! 



It has ever been a tradition among Jewish writers, 
and woven into various Masonic Degrees, that the hill 
termed Moriah, upon which the Temple stood, is exca- 
vated in vaults for mysterious purposes. Travelers, from 
Bishop Arculf, who visited Jerusalem near the close of 
the sixth century, down to the present time, have given 
tales of the native residents embodying allusions to this 
fact, but no one has furnished the world with a distinct 
account until within a few years. Dr. James T. Barclay, 
an American missionary, first discovered the opening to 
an immense series of excavations, which he has described 
in his City of the Great King, published in 1858. 
These caves open near the Damascus Gate, in the north- 
ern wall of the city, the entrance being under the wall, 
which is ten feet thick. The outer apartment is more 
than one thousand feet in diameter, the rock being all 
quarried out by art, and used doubtless in the construc- 
tion of the city, the walls, and the Temple. Many blocks 
are still lying upon the floor of the quarry, squared and 
prepared for the builders' hands ; others are partly cut 
from the wall, as if the workmen were called away before 
their task was finished. This quarry being considerably 
higher in its lowest place than the ground upon which 
the Temple stood, explains a ready method for moving 
down by a gentle descent the heavy material used in that 
work. The work of quarrying was apparently effected 
by an instrument resembling a pick -ax, with a broad, 
chisel-shaped end, as the spaces between the blocks were 
not more than four inches wide, in which it would be 


impossible for a man to work with a chisel and mallet. 
After being cut away at each side arid at the bottom, a 
lever was probably inserted, and the combined force of 
three or four men could easily pry the block away from 
the rock behind. The stone is extremely soft and fria- 
ble, nearly white, and very easily worked, but, like the 
stone of Malta and Paris, it hardens upon exposure. The 
marks of the cutting-instrument are as plainly defined as 
if the workman had but just ceased from his labor. The 
extreme length of this quarry, as far as explored, from 
the city wall, is not less than a quarter of a mile. 

Under the site of the Temple are excavations remain- 
ing as remarkable as the building itself. Perhaps every 
portion of the Sacred Hill is thus undermined, although 
up to the present period only a portion has been ex- 
plored. In the south-west corner of the Hill there is a 
broad avenue under ground, two hundred and fifty-nine 
feet long, forty- two wide, and thirty high. At the end 
of this, a flight of nine steps leads downward to another 
hall, fifty feet long and forty wide, supported in the cen- 
ter by a pillar cut from a single stone, twenty-one feet 
high and six in diameter. It is probable that further 
galleries will be found connecting this cavern with 
others upon the hills westward. In the south-east cor- 
ner is a series of caves, including a vault, supported by 
fifteen rows of columns, making an apartment three 
hundred and nineteen feet by two hundred and fifty. 
Immediately under the ancient Temple is a cave twenty 
feet by six, near which, at the depth of sixty or seventy 
feet, is a cistern capable of holding two million gallons 
of water! Concerning this immense reservoir, a writer 
says : " There is nothing remaining of all the works of 


Solomon which so impressively reflects his wonderful 
intellect as this lake under the Temple." 

It is only of late years that a thorough and systematic 
course of explorations above and beneath Jerusalem 
has been commenced. Fanaticism and barbarous exclu- 
sion are fast giving way before the light of civilization, 
and it can not be long until the Turkish rulers will sub- 
mit to the various arguments of steel and gold urged 
upon them by throwing open the city to explorers. Then 
will be seen that the traditions of Freemasonry, which so 
Jong preserved important topographical, architectural, 
and religious knowledge concerning the ancient Hill, are 
well founded, and it is not beyond the bounds of credi- 
bility that discoveries await us as important in the ad- 
vancement of Masonic Science as in general information. 







THESE two Degrees are conferred, according to the 
American system, in a Council of Cryptic Masonry. 
The ballot is taken in the Second or Select Master's 
Degree; the same rules of balloting being observed as 
in the Symbolical Lodge. 

All discipline exercised, by a Lodge or Chapter re- 
quiring suspension and expulsion is indorsed by the 
Council without inquiry. The Council has also its own 
code of discipline for offenses against its laws. 

Not less than nine nor more than twenty-seven mem- 
bers can open, work, or close a Council of Cryptic 



WE can predict, from day to day, 
Some things will meet us on life's way; 
But who, of all that draw life's breath, 
Can shadow what is after death ? 

When spring awakes we look for flowers, 
And leafy boughs and genial bowers ; 
The flowery spring rewards our faith; 
What shall we look for after deathl 

When autumn spreads its sober skies, 
With open laps we wait the prize; 
We catch the showering fruits beneath ; 
What fruitage for us after death ? 

We trace the infant through each 
Of youth, of manhood, and of age; 
Each stage confirms our previous faith 
What grade awaits him after death ? 

Such the reflections of this grade; 
Such question here is freely made; 
Life's SECRET lies beneath, beneath, 
'T is only yielded after death I 



THE Degree of ROYAL MASTER is the beginning of a 
third series, of which the Symbolical Degrees and the 
Capitular or Chapitral Degrees -are the first two. As 
a distinctive title, that of Cryptic Degrees has been gen- 
erally adopted, as referring to the introduction of caves- 
or caverns peculiar to this system. The Ritual is simple, 
but expressive. The introduction of the Cryptic De- 
grees into this country dates from a period about twenty 
years subsequent to that of the Royal Arch. The rule 
was then established that none but Royal Arch Masons 
should receive it. As a grade, it is preparatory to that 
of Select Master, bearing the same relation to it which 
the Degree of Entered Apprentice bears to that of Fel- 
low Craft. Its means of recognition are used as a con- 
venient and expeditious method of examining a Royal 
Arch Companion. The title of the organization in which 
the Degrees of Royal and Select Master are conferred, 
is Council of Royal and Select Masters. In a Council 
not more than nine nor less than twenty-seven members 
can take part at a time; if more be present, they are 
supernumerary. The government of Councils is in- 



trusted to Grand Councils of Cryptic Masonry, of which 
there is one in nearly every State. 

Mr. Cole informs us that in 1817 the Degree of ROYAL 
MASTER was " considered as merely preparatory, and 
usually conferred immediately before the solemn cere- 
mony of exaltation to the Royal Arch." At that period 
it was conferred with the Degree of "Ark Master or 
Noachite," both being considered of equal authority. 
The latter has become obsolete in this country. 

PRAYER. The frequent repetition of prayer, in all the 
Masonic grades, is peculiarly calculated to impress the 
memory with our constant obligation to piety and devo- 
tion. Were the benefactions of Providence but partially 
or unfrequently enjoyed, perhaps we might forget that 
return of gratitude which is the only remuneration in 
our power to make ; but his benefits are new every 
morning and fresh every moment, and surely our per- 
petual thanksgiving should ascend to heaven. 

The voice of the Temple the tidings of love, 
That speaks of the Master who reigneth above; 
His glory, His glory in the highest who dwells, 
And Good-will to man, is the burden it tells. 

Come, Brethren, in chorus, 

Prolong the glad tidings, 
No duty so sweet as the hymning of God; 

His faith each professing, 

His knowledge possessing, 
Exalt each the blessing His grace hath bestowed. 

The meeting of a Lodge of ROYAL MASTERS is, in 
strictness, a religious ceremony. It can not be regu- 
larly opened or closed without prayer. The book of 
Holy Scriptures is an essential part of its furniture, 


without which no work can be done or instruction at- 
tempted. Blasphemy is deemed a heinous offense against 
the precepts of this grade. The Lodge of ROYAL MAS- 
TERS is, theoretically, a beacon-light, throwing abroad its 
rays, as from a mountain summit. 

A city set upon a hill 

." Can not be hid; 

Exposed to every eye, it will 

Over surrounding plain and vale 

An influence shed; 
And spread the light of peace afar, 
Or blight the land with horrid war. 

This ROYAL LODGE is planted so, 

For high display; 
It is a Beacon-light to show 
Life's weary wanderers as they go 

The better way; 

To show by ties of earthly love, 
How perfect is the Lodge above. 

B this your labor, ROYAL FRIENDS, 

While laboring here; 
Borrow from him who kindly lends 
The heavenly ladder that ascends 

The higher sphere; 
And let the world your progress see, 
Upward by Faith, Hope, Charity! 

RECOGNITIONS. The members of this branch possess 
infallible means of recognition, equally applicable to the 
grades preceding. They are unchangeable, consistent 
with each other, and with a general plan, and they form 
a part of the instruction communicated to every ROYAL 
MASTER upon his reception into the Lodge. A visitor 


endeavoring to enter without a competent knowledge of 
these is viewed as an impostor, and contemptuously re- 
jected; a visitor possessing them is hailed as a ROYAL 
MASTER, and welcomed accordingly. 

Yet the outside world are not to suppose that the 
mere possession of a few private formulas of word and 
gesture are sufficient to entitle a person to conceive 
himself a brother. No. These are but the sequalce of 
initiation. The whole system is far more elaborate, 
comprising a petition for initiation, avouchals, and rec- 
ommendations, cautious inspection of moral character, 
and of physical and mental qualifications, the ballot 
thorough and secret, the reception traditional and im- 
pressive, and a series of covenants, than which noth- 
ing can be better devised to bind the conscience of a 
man to good thoughts and good works. These, accom- 
panied with elaborate ritualisms, lead, in the end, to the 
communication of appropriate means of recognition, so 
arranged that while they suggest to the memory the 
peculiar secrets of the grade, are a constant reminder 
of its covenants and duties, and the punishment sym- 
bolically predicted of those who willfully violate and neg- 
lect them. 

The means of recognition may be compared, in their 
unchangeableness and allegorical character, to the Pil- 
lars of King Solomon's Porch. The raising Pillars and 
Obelisks was a custom of the eastern nations, and of 
Egypt in particular; the use of which, we are told, was 
to record the extent of dominion and the tributes of 
nations subject to the Egyptian empire, etc., or in com- 
memoration of memorable events. Diodorus tells us 
that Sesostris signalized his reign by the erection of two 


obelisks, which were cut with a design to acquaint pos- 
terity of the extent of his power, and the number of 
the nations he had conquered. Augustus, according to 
the report of Pliny, transported one of these obelisks to 
Rome, and placed it in the Campus Martius. Pliny 
says the Egyptians were the first devisers of such move- 
ments, and that Mestres, King of Heliopolis, erected the 
first. Marsham and others attribute the invention to 
Sesostris. The obelisk of Shannesis exceeded all that 
had preceded it; Constantine, and Constans, his son, 
caused it to be moved to Rome, where it remains, the 
noblest piece of Egyptian antiquity existing in the world. 
Solomon had pursued this custom in erecting his pillars 
in the porch of the Temple, which he designed should 
be a memorial to the Jews as they entered the Holy 
Place, to warn their minds with confidence and faith by 
this record of the promises made by the Lord unto his 
father David, and which were repeated unto him in a 
vision, in which the voice of God proclaimed, "I will 
establish the throne of thy kingdom upon Israel for- 

SCRIPTURAL REFERENCES. The use of Scriptural pas 
sages in the Rituals of Masonry has a twofold applica- 
tion. It conveys to the initiate the peculiar instructions 
of the grade, often in the most forcible and direct man- 
ner, while it gives a clue to the memory in recalling the 
means of recognition. In this double sense the follow- 
ing passages are appropriate to the degree of ROYAL 

"And I heard a great voice out of heaven, saying, 
Behold, the tabernacle of God is with men, and he will 


dwell with them, and they shall be his people, and God 
himself shall be with them, and be their God. 
. "And God shall wipe away all tears from their eyes; 
and there shall be no more death, neither sorrow, nor 
crying, neither shall there be any more pain : for the for- 
mer things are passed away. 

" And he that sat upon the throne said, Behold I make 
all things new. And he said unto me, Write: for these 
words are true and faithful. 

" And he said unto me, It is done. I am Alpha and 
Omega, the beginning and the end. I will give unto him 
that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely. 

"And behold, I come quickly; and my reward is with 
me, to give every man according as his work shall be. 

"I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end. 
the first and the last. 

" Blessed are they that do his commandments, that they 
may have right to the tree of life, and may enter in 
through the gates into the city." Revela. xxi and xxii. 

"And Solomon made all the vessels that pertained 
unto the house of the Lord: the altar of gold, and the 
table of gold, whereupon the shew-bread was, and the 
candlesticks of pure gold, five on the right side, and 
five on the left, before the oracle, with the flowers, and 
the lamps, and the tongs of gold; and the bowls, 
and the snuffers, and the basins, and the spoons, and 
the censers, of pure gold; and the hinges of gold both 
for the doors of the inner house, to-wit, of the temple. 
So Hiram made an end of doing all the work that he 
had made king Solomon for the house of the Lord." 
1 Kings, vii. 


"Lord, who shall abide in thy tabernacle? who shall 
dwell in thy holy hill? 

"He that walketh uprightly, and worketh righteous- 
ness, and speaketh the truth in his heart. 

"He that backbiteth not with his tongue, nor doeth 
evil to his neighbor, nor taketh up a reproach against 
his neighbor. 

"In whose eyes a vile person is contemned: but he 
honoreth them that fear the Lord. He that sweareth to 
his own hurt, and changeth not. 

"He that putteth not out his money to usury, nor 
taketh reward against the innocent. He that doeth 
these things shall never be moved." Psalms, xv. 


THE consideration of the Cherubim as the most sacred 
emblem in the Mosaic Ceremonial is a part of the Rituals 
of the ROYAL MASTER. A group of Cherubims, in allu- 
sion to those that stood in the Holy of Holies, forms a 
proper emblem of this grade. The Cherub was a figure 
composed of various creatures, as a man, an ox, an eagle, 
or a lion. The first mention of the Cherubs is in Gene- 
sis, iii, 24, where the figure is not described; but their 
office was, with a flaming sword, to keep or guard the 
way of the tree of life. The two Cherubs which Moses 
was commanded to make, at the ends of the mercy-seat, 
were to be of beaten work of gold; and their wings were to 
extend over the mercy-seat, their faces toward each other, 
and between them was the residence of the Deity. (Ex- 
odus, xxv.) The Cherubs in Bzekiel's vision had each 
four heads or faces, the hands of a man and wings. The 


four faces were the face of a bull, that of a man, that 
of a lion, and that of an eagle. They had the likeness 
of a man. (Ezekiel, iv and ix.) In 2 Samuel, xxii, 11, 
and Psalm xviii, Jehovah is represented as riding on a 
Cherub and flying on the wings of the wind. In the ce- 
lestial hierarchy Cherubs are represented as spirits next 
in order to Seraphs. The hieroglyphical and emblem- 
atical figures embroidered on the veils of the Tabernacle 
are called Cherubs of curious or skillful work. (Exo- 
dus, xxvi.) 

The Scriptural accounts of the position of the Cheru- 
bims are precise : 

"He set the Cherubims within the inner-house: and 
they stretched forth the wings of the Cherubims, so that 
the wing of the one touched the one wall, and the wing 
of the other Cherub touched the other wall; and their 
wings touched one another in the midst of the house." 
1 Kings, vi. 

This should be an accurate guide to ROYAL MASTERS 
in the use of this emblem in their Lodges. 

THE THOUGHT OF DEATH. There is no portion of the 
Ritual of ROYAL MASTER so impressive as the solemn 
thought of death, so aptly introduced. " The young may 
die, the old must die," is said with an impressiveness 
that is very affecting. To the most of men the end of 
life is anticipated with horror, insomuch that thousands 
of mankind would relinquish the opportunity of gaining 
an inheritance " incorruptible, undefiled, and that fadeth 
not away," if the present life could be immortal. Not 


so with the truly good man. He anticipates a season 
of rest and relief from mortal labors, when the grosser 
implements of sublunary arts shall be suspended in the 
desolated halls of mortality that the harps of angels may 
employ his hands forever. There, there will be no more 
occasion for level or plumb-line, for trowel or gavel, for 
compass or square. On the perfect level of eternity 
neither weakness nor envy will jeopardize the good 
man's bright career, nor will he need an emblem of rec- 
titude while the example of sister-spirits is ever before 
him. The cement of heavenly love will be spread by 
the hand of Deity, and no imperfection will require the 
force of art to remove it. Infinitely broad will be the 
circle of duty, and no brother will be disposed to over- 
leap its boundaries, for all will be kept within the angle 
of perfection by Him who is able " to keep us from fall- 
ing" and present us faultless before the presence of His 
glory with exceeding joy. There the General Grand 
Lodge of immortality will hold an endless communica- 
tion, consisting of the fraternity of the accepted of God. 

By the pallid hue of those 

Whose sweet blushes mocked the rose; 

By the fixed, unmeaning eye, 

Sparkled once so cheerfully; 

By the cold damps on the brow, 

By the tongue, discordant now; 

By the gasp and laboring breath, 

What, tell us, what is death ? 

By the vacancy of heart, 
Where the lost one had a part; 
By the yearnings to retrieve 
Treasures hidden in the grave; 


By the future, hopeless all, 
Wrapped as in a funeral pall; 
By the links that rust beneath, 
What, tell us, what is death 

By the echoes swelled around, 
Sigh and moan and sorrow-sound; 
By the grave that, opened nigh, 
Cruel, yields us no reply; 
By the silent King, whose dart 
Seeks and finds the mortal part; 
We may know, no human breath 

Can inform us what is death! 

But the grave has spoken loud; 
Once was raised the gloomy shroud, 
When the stone was rolled away, 
When the earth in frenzied play 
Shook her pillars to awake 
Him who suffered for our sake; 
When the veil's deep fissure showed 
All the mysteries of God ! 

Tell us, then, thou sink of hope, 
What is He that breaks thee up? 
Mortal, from my chambers dim 
Christ arose, inquire of him ! 
Hark unto the earnest cry, 
Notes celestial make reply: 
Christian, unto thee 't is given 
Death's a passage unto Heaven! 

THE CUNNING WORKMAN. In all the Masonic Degrees 
that relate to the building of the first Temple, particu- 
larly those of the Fellow Craft, the Master Mason, the 
Mark Master, the Royal Master, and the Select Master, 
there is much said in praise of the skill, assiduity, and 
fidelity of one known in the Scripture accounts as Hi- 


ram, the Widow's Son. The Biblical narrative concern- 
ing this remarkable man is as follows : 

"And Solomon sent and fetched Hiram out of Tyre. 

"He was a widow's son of the tribe of Naphtali, and 
his father was a man of Tyre, a worker in brass; and 
he was filled with wisdom, and understanding, and cun- 
ning to work all works in brass. And he came to Solo- 
mon, and wrought all his work." 1 Kings, vii. 

" Now I have sent a cunning man, endued with under- 
standing, of Huram my father's. 

" The son of a woman of the daughters of Dan, and 
his father was a man of Tyre, skillful to work in gold, 
and in silver, in brass, in iron, in stone, and in timber, 
in purple, in blue, and in fine linen, and in crimson ; also 
to grave any manner of graving, and to find out every 
device which shall be put to him, with thy cunning men, 
and with the cunning men of my lord David thy father." 
2 Chronicles, ii. 

This man, to the description of whose scientific knowl- 
edge and experienced art more space is given than to 
any other character in the Old Testament save Moses 
and Daniel, was intrusted with all the works in brass, 
the pillars Jachin and Boaz, the molten sea, the ten 
vases, the ten lavers, the pots, the shovels, and the ba- 
sins of the Temple. In- addition to these, it may safely 
be affirmed that the general superintendence of the en- 
tire erection was placed in his charge; the preparation 
of the veils, the engravings of all kinds, the settings of 
gems and precious stones, the construction of the ivory 


throne, the substructures of the Temple, the Cherubims, 
and, in brief, the whole work to which so much time, 
labor, genius, and expenditure were given. In this view, 
he was the most remarkable man, considered as a prac- 
tical mechanic, or, as the Scriptures term it, " cunning 
workman," that the world ever produced. It is as nat- 
ural to attribute to the Divine Providence the great 
qualities of the Builder Hiram as those of the Monarch 
Solomon; and it is difficult to see how such a work 
could have been constructed at all but for his superin- 

The Scriptures and Church traditions are silent as to 
the ultimate history of the "cunning workman." Tra- 
ditions connected with the apocryphal systems of " the 
Scotch Rite" describe him as returning to Phoenicia and 
constructing various temples after the completion of 
Solomon's, but the tradition of the Master Mason's De- 
gree is positive that he did not outlive the completion 
of his clief-d'cewvre upon Mount Moriah. The circum- 
stances of his death, as detailed in the Master's Lodge, 
are particularly interesting to the ROYAL MASTER, who 
is made acquainted with many amiable traits of his char- 
acter, and exhorted to use him as a model of piety, 
industry, and fidelity to truth. In the capacity of a 
model, "the Widow's Son" is the most prominent figure 
in the Masonic Rituals. Every thing connected with his 
career while at Jerusalem his wonderful assiduity to 
business, his frugality, his artistic skill, his accuracy in 
adapting means to ends, his modesty in his daily con- 
tact with kings, his unflinching attachment to discipline, 
without which so great a work must have miscarried, 
and, best of all, his fidelity to his trust as a speculative 


workman in a structure that was to survive the ruin of 
the Temple and the nation all these are traits in the 
model character of Hiram. In many respects he is a 
prototype of the " Man of Galilee," whose Reign of 
Peace was prefigured by the period of King Solomon, 
and who, as Chief Architect of a religious structure that 
will defy eternity to shake it from its base, is the head 
of all speculative architecture ; whose traditions are the 
history of the Church militant, and into whose glorious 
edifice we also, as " the fellow-citizens with the saints 
and of the household of God, are built upon the founda- 
tion of the apostles and prophets, JESUS CHRIST himself 
being the chief corner-stone, in whom all the building 
being fitly framed together, groweth unto a holy temple in 
the Lord." From these thoughts we naturally deduce the 
moral that Masonry was never intended to displace or 
supersede Christianity. It may, and often does, sub- 
serve the interests of the Cross, but can never fill its 
place or answer its ends. So far from setting up any 
such pretensions, it distinctly and unequivocally avows 
the contrary; and he who trusts to the moral power of 
Freemasonry for the revolution of his moral nature, the 
subjugation of his evil passions, arid for a blissful im- 
mortality, poorly understands the ground-work of the 
Order, and works a fatal, unpardonable fraud upon 




AT midnight as at noon 

The ancient worthies met : 
The glances of the moon 

Beheld those laborers late; 
Nor till the glancing moon was high 
Did any lay his Trowel by. 

Each felt a weight of care, 
A solemn charge o'erspread; 

Each toiled in earnest there, 
With busy hand and head; 

And to the deep and faithful cave 

These midnight craft a secret gave. 

In whom the fire burns bright, 

At midnight as at noon, 
All secrets come to light 

Beneath the glancing moon: 
Nor till the glancing moon is high, 
Must any lay his Trowel by. 



THE system of accumulated Degrees is so popular in 
the United States, that it is rare to find a Master Mason 
who has not taken the " Higher Degrees," or who is not 
preparing to do so. This shows that it is not for prac- 
tical purposes alone that our countrymen pursue Free- 
masonry for all that is practical in the system is 
contained in the first three Grades but for dramatic en- 
joyment and for those eclectic purposes which are sub- 
served by the "Higher Degrees." This fact demands 
that we should, upon this last page, give a synopsis of 
the entire system of Nine Degrees usually accepted as 
a series of Grades in American Masonry. 

1. THE ENTERED APPRENTICE. This is the founda- 
tion-stone of the whole system; it is the trial Degree. 
Not less than seven must be associated together in a 
Lodge to confer it. The theory of it is trial and moral 
discipline. The working tools or practical symbols are 
the Twenty-four-inch Gauge and the Gavel. The in- 
structions are Faith, Hope, and Charity; Brotherly 



Love, Relief, and Truth ; Temperance, Fortitude, Pru- 
dence, and Justice. 

2. THE FELLOW CRAFT. This is the complement of 
the preceding Degree; it is the Apprentice turned Jour- 
neyman. Not less than five must be associated together 
in a Lodge to confer it. The theory of it is ability to 
shape perfect work. The working tools or practical sym- 
bols are the Plumb, Square, and Level. The instruc- 
tions are the Attentive Ear, the Instructive Tongue, and 
the Faithful Breast. 

3. THE MASTER MASON. This is the governing Grade 
of the two preceding; it is the Fellow Craft placed in 
command of his fellows. Not less than three must be 
associated together in a Lodge to confer it. The theory 
of it is ability to govern in the love and fear of God. The 
working tool or practical symbol is the Trowel. The 
instructions are Friendship, Morality, and Brotherly 

4. THE MARK MASTER. This is the complement, in 
ritualism, of the Fellow Craft; it is the Fellow Craft 
made skillful. Not less than eight must be associated 
together in a Lodge to ^confer it. The theory of it is 
good labor merits good ivages. The working tools or 
practical symbols are the Chisel and Mallet. 

5. THE PAST MASTER. This is the governing Grade 
of the four preceding; it is the Master Mason fitted to 
command a Lodge or many Lodges. Not less than three 
must be associated together in a Lodge to confer it. 


The theory of it is that a Masonic governor has three 
guides to discipline; viz., the Law of God, the Grand 
Lodge Constitution, and the By-Laws of his own Lodge. 

6. THE MOST EXCELLENT MASTER. This is closely 
connected with the Master Mason's Grade. Not less than 
two must be associated together in a Lodge to confer it. 
The theory of it is fervent devotion to God. The work- 
ing or practical symbol is the Pot of Incense. 

7. THE ROYAL ARCH MASON. This is a continuation 
of the Master Mason; it is the Master Mason placed 
under circumstances of exile, hard pilgrimage, persecu- 
tion, and excessive labor. Not less than nine must asso- 
ciate together in a Chapter to confer it. The theory 
of it is unbounded devotion to God. The working tools, 
or practical symbols are the Pickax, Spade, and Crow- 
bar. The instructions are Freedom, Fervency, and 

8. THE ROYAL MASTER. This is a recurrence to the 
Grade of Fellow Craft; it is the Fellow Craft urgent for 
more light. Not less than nine nor more than twenty- 
seven must associate together in a Council to confer it. 
The theory of it is ardent cravings for Masonic instruc- 

9. THE SELECT MASTER. This is the complement of 
the Grade of Royal Master; it is the Royal Master sat- 
isfied with light. Not less than nine nor more than 
twenty-seven must associate together in a Council to 
confer it. The theory of it is Justice and Mercy at ac- 


cord. The working tools or practical emblems, both for 
this and the preceding grade, are the Trowel within the 


To sum up the theories, or central rays, of these 
nine grades, they are: 

1. Trial and moral discipline. 

2. Ability to shape perfect work. 

3. Ability to govern in the love and fear of God. 

4. Good labor merits good wages. 

5. The three fundamental guides to discipline. 

6. Fervent devotion to God. 

7. Unbounded devotion to God. 

8. Ardent cravings for Masonic instruction. 

9. Justice and mercy at accord. 

These are all good lessons, whose contemplation can 
not fail to improve the mind, soften the heart, restrain 
prejudices, increase the virtues, and fit the soul for 
higher labors in the Lodge above. In each Degree, the 
necessity and duty of prayer are impressed upon the 
mind of the novitiate, being as clearly important to the 
aged as to the young, on the borders of the grave as 
in the flower of manhood. It was pointed out to man, 
in the earliest ages of the world, as a suitable medium 
of communion between earth and heaven. It was the 
"Ladder of the Patriarch," on which angels descend to 
minister to the happiness of men. Its three rounds are 
adapted to the flight of the soul to its immortal man- 
sions. Its benefits are immeasurable, and its obligatory 
force is commensurate with probationary being. It can 
never be useless or unimportant, till we have passed 
through the veils to repose on the bosom of our Maker. 


COVENANTS. There is also to each grade a series of 
Covenants, of which, in the cautious spirit of American 
Masonry, we can say but little. They are derived from 
Holy Writ, strongly enjoined upon the novitiate, and 
repeated with variations of language and sentiment in 
each Degree. They are such as none but a conscien- 
tious man, walking and working in the fear of God, 
can keep. 

RECOGNITIONS. In these grades there is also a series 
of methods of recognition, arrangements of tests, words, 
gestures, etc., by which the brethren of the respective 
Degrees may mutually examine and be examined for all 
the purposes of the society, without liability to error. 
Of these, no more can be said in print. 

QUALIFICATIONS. A general summary of the qualifi- 
cations requisite to admission into any of these nine 
grades is thus given : It is formed out of the antiquated 
documents of Freemasonry extant, especially the '"An- 
cient Charges," a publication, the oldest in Masonic 
science, made by authority of the Grand Lodge of Eng- 
land, in 1723. An applicant for the honors and privi- 
leges, the duties and responsibilities of Masonry, must 

1. A Man. "No woman." 

2. Free, and Free-born. "No bondman." "The 
owner of a bondman might otherwise seize him, even in 
the Lodge." "Free-born." "No bondsman." 

3. Of suitable age. " Of mature and discreet age." 

4. Of good moral character. " Good and true men." 
"No immoral or scandalous men." "No thief, robber, 


or murderer." "Utter no false oaths." "Must rever- 
ence God." "Must work honestly." "Do no evil." 
"Not commit whoredom." "No thief nor the aid of a 
thief." "True men to God and the Church." "Know 
no treason or treachery." "No common player at the 
cards, dice, hazard, or any other unlawful plays." 

5. Born in honest wedlock. "No bastard." "De- 
scended of honest parents.''" "Of a good kindred." 
"Of honest parentage." 

6. Of good public estimation. "Of good report." 
"No man under evil report." "Ignorance would dis- 
credit the Craft." " Honor is to be done to the Frater- 
nity by itinerant Masons." "False oaths would bring 
disgrace upon Masonry." "No persons shall be ac- 
cepted a Freemason but such as are of good reputa- 

7. Perfect in body. "A perfect youth, having no 
maim or defect in his body." "On no account receive 
a mutilated person." "His limbs must be quite entire 
and shapely ; it would be a stigma upon the Fraternity 
to initiate a halt or lame man." " Of limbs whole, as 
a man ought to be." "Able in all degrees, having his 
right limbs, as a man ought to have." " Of able body." 

8. Of good mental powers. " If the Master discover 
that he is a Craftsman not so perfect as he should be, 
let him be at once discharged." "The Apprentice must 
be thoroughly instructed in the various points of the 
Masonic science." "He must keep the secrets intrusted 
to him." 

9. Submissive to Masonic rule. "Willing to serve 
seven years." "An Apprentice must serve for smaller 
wages than a Fellow Craft." "He must exercise meek- 


ness." "He must avoid discord and contention." "He 
must be constrained to appear wheresoever he is sum- 
moned." "If he in any wise contend against the or- 
dinances of the Grand Lodge, he shall be made a sub- 
ject of Masonic punishment." "He shall conceal and 

From this summary, the entire code of Masonic dis- 
cipline and duty may be deduced. Nothing more per- 
fect has ever been presented by human hands for hu- 
man adoption, and so long as the labors of the Craft 
are performed upon this model, the Masonic Institution 
will stand a monument, from age to age, of social ties, 
mutual benefit, and moral perfection. 


The Degree of SELECT MASTER is the ninth and last 
of the series contemplated in the present volume. Be- 
yond it, there is one Degree in the Chivalric System, 
termed the Red-Gross Knight, which bears the same re- 
lation to the Royal Arch that the Royal Master's De- 
gree bears to the SELECT MASTER. But our present 
plan excludes it from this volume. 

The Degree of SELECT MASTER, in beauty and im- 
pressiveness, does not lose in comparison with any other 
named in the present volume. Its drama is peculiarly 
interesting, suggesting to the mind the greatest doctrine 
of the Holy Scriptures; viz., the blending of mercy with 
justice. Mr. Webb's discription of it is as follows: 
"This Degree is the summit and perfection of .ancient 
Masonry; and without which, the history of the Royal 


Arch can not be complete. It rationally accounts for 
the concealment and preservation of those essentials of 
the Craft which were brought to light at the erection 
of the second Temple, and which lay concealed from the 
Masonic eye four hundred and seventy years. Many 
particulars relative to those few who, for their superior 
skill, were selected to complete an important part of King 
Solomon's Temple are explained. And here, too, is ex- 
emplified an instance of justice and mercy by our ancient 
Patron toward one of the Craft, who was led to disobey 
his commands by an over-zealous attachment for the in- 
stitution. It ends with a description of a particular cir- 
cumstance which characterizes the Degree." Mr. Cole 
describes the Degree of SELECT MASTER as "filling up 
a chasm which every intelligent Royal Arch Mason has 
observed. Without it, it seems difficult, if not impossi- 
ble, to comprehend clearly some of the mysteries that 
belong to the august Degree of Royal Arch." He adds : 
" Such is the nature of this Degree, that we can not feel 
freedom to allude remotely to the nature of its secrets; 
we may, however, pronounce it the Key to the Arch." 
In 1817 it was conferred only in the city of Baltimore, 
Maryland, where it ranked as the Fifth Degree in the 
series, following next to that of Mark Master. In a sub- 
sequent page, Mr. Cole says : " Without the Degree of 
SELECT MASTER, that of Royal Arch discovers to the 
strict inquirer a chasm, the bottom of which, notwith- 
standing its native and artificial brilliancy, is enveloped 
in darkness." 

So much being said in all the Degrees of Craft Ma- 
sonry relative to the city of Jerusalem, it will be proper 
here to give a more complete account of that remarka- 


ble place. Its history surpasses in vicissitudes that of 
any other upon earth. Seventeen times has it been 
destroyed and rebuilt. Every nation that has risen in 
the Oriental world, for nearly four thousand years, has 
invested and captured Jerusalem, and in turn yielded it 
to succeeding spoilers. The first notice that history 
affords us of this remarkable place, is in the account of 
Abraham pursuing the four kings to Hobah, and rescu- 
ing his nephew Lot from their hands. Returning to 
Hebron, which was his residence, he was met in the 
Vale of Shaveh by Melchizedek, the king of Salem, to 
whom he paid tithes of the spoil he had captured. At 
the same time he received from that prince a blessing, 
even the blessing of the Most High God, together with 
such refreshments as his wearied party needed. 
. Upon the conquest of Palestine by Joshua, Jerusalem 
was cast to the lot of Benjamin ; but the warriors of that 
tribe failing to seize it from the Jebusites, it fell to the 
people of Judah, upon whose boundary-line it stood, and 
whose superior prowess, under king David, wrested it from 
the hands of the enemy. David made it the Royal City 
and Metropolis of his kingdom. His son Solomon erected 
that wonderful and mysterious edifice, the Temple, upon 
its eastern eminence, Mount Moriah, and in the division 
of the kingdom, under Rehoboam, it remained the Me- 
tropolis of the Kingdom of Judah. 

In the day of its highest splendor and prosperity its 
population exceeded a million of souls. The Jewish cer- 
emonial requiring all the people to appear in the Temple 
three times a year, Jerusalem was ever a thronged city 
and the great inland mart of the nation. The surround- 
ing hills, being terraced and irrigated, were covered with 


the fruitful things of that latitude, grains, figs, olives 
and vines. The cattle grazed upon the thousand hills, 
affording food, clothing, and wealth to the inhabit- 

But glorious as was the temporal prosperity shared 
with Tyre, Sidon, the cities of Egypt, and other flourish^ 
ing emporiums, Jerusalem was more fortunate than any, 
in being the residence, the earthly home, of the Most 
High God. Jehovah, who had answered the supplica- 
tions of King Solomon in the Fire and the Cloud, 
condescended to abide upon the Mercy-seat under the 
cherubim, in the Most Holy Place. By oracles, by the 
mystic Urim and Thummim, by visions, voices, and 
dreams, he answered the prayers of the faithful through 
the Divinely-ordained Priesthood, and made his presence 
known to those who rightly sought him. This fact, well 
understood by the pious Jews, made Jerusalem the "joy 
of the whole earth" to them. It was the Sacred City, 
the one spiritual oasis in a wilderness of heathen super- 
stititions and impiety. From hence came forth the law. 
The Psalms of David were promulgated from this city. 
Ezra collated and composed the sacred canon here. 
Here for hundreds of years stood up, east of the Porch 
of the Temple, the grand pillars, Jachin and Boaz, the 
wonder and admiration of all beholders ; an assurance to 
all, in their very names, that in strength God had cove- 
nanted to establish the honor, the city, the kingdom, the 
law forever, provided Israel would continue to serve 
him as their Lawgiver and Ruler. 

Such, then, was the City of the Great King; the per- 
fection of beauty, the joy of the whole earth. But, alas! 
how great has been her fall ! How doth the city sit sol- 


itary that was full of people ! how is she become as a 
widow ! 

Reft of thy sons, amid thy foes forlorn, 

Mourn, widowed Queen ! forgotten Sion, mourn ! 

Is this thy place, sad city, this thy throne, 

Where the wild desert rears its craggy stone 

Where suns, unblest, their angry luster fling, 

And way-worn pilgrims seek the scanty spring? 

Where now thy pomp, which kings with envy viewed? 

Where now thy might, which all these kings subdued? 

No martial myriads muster in thy gate : 

No suppliant nations in thy temple wait; 

No prophet-bards, thy glittering courts among, 

Wake the full lyre, and swell the tide of song; 

But lawless force and meager want are there, 

And the quick, darting eye of restless fear; 

While cold oblivion, mid thy ruins laid, 

Folds his dark wing beneath the ivy shade. 

Jerusalem, now for more than a thousand years in 
possession of the infidel, is a miserable town, of less 
than ten thousand inhabitants, possessing not a wreck 
of its former glory. Temple, brazen pillars, palaces, all 
are gone. The very surface of the earth upon which 
pressed the feet of prophets, priests, and kings, is buried, 
in places, fifty feet deep beneath the debris of the former 
city, and, with the exception of a few great stones in 
the foundation- walls about Mount Moriah, it is impossible 
to point to an object fashioned by the hand of man, 
and affirmed with certainty, " this is the handiwork of 
the men of Solomon." 

CRYPTIC MASONRY. The term " Cryptic Masonry," as 
applied to the two Degrees of the Council, is derived 
more especially from the SELECT MASTER. Descriptions 


of some of the remarkable caves and substructures of 
King Solomon 3 Temple will be found upon subsequent 
pages. It is a pleasant tradition, illustrating this de- 
partment, that the body of the Wi&e King yet lies en- 
tombed within a crypt, in the bowels of the Sacred 
Mountain, and that his spirit is permitted to wander 
forth at midnight, and to visit for one hour the places 
made memorable by his wisdom, valor, benevolence, or 
piety, during his lifetime. Among all these, however, 
there is none which his spirit haunts with such tenacity 
as working Lodges of Freemasons. Wherever Gavels 
ring or Jewels gleam, past the midnight hour, the spirit 
of Solomon is. found, not visible to the eye, but appar- 
ent, it is said, to the well-informed, by the enlarged 
spirit of brotherly love animating .every breast. The 
following lines illustrate the thought: 


IN a deep, rocky Cave great King Solomon lies, 

Sealed up till the judgment from all prying eyes: 

The Square on his breast, and his kingly brow crowned, 

His Gavel and Scepter with filletings wound ; 

At midnight, impatient, his spirit comes forth, 

And haunts for a season the places of earth. 

He flits like a thought to the chambers of kings; 

To the plain where black battle has shaken his wings; 

To the cave where the student his late vigil keeps; 

To the cell where the prisoner hopelessly weeps : 

But most where Freemasons their mystical round 

Continue past midnight, King Solomon 's found. ^ 

0, then when the bell tolls low tivelve, do we hear 
A rustling, a whispering startle the ear ; 


A deep solemn murmur, while Crafts stand in awe, 
At something the eye of a mortal ne'er saw; 
We know it, we feel it, we welcome the King, 
Whose spirit takes part in the anthem we sing. 

And then every heart beats responsive and warm; 
The Acacia blooms freshly, we heed not the storm; 
Our tapers are starlit, and lo ! from above, 
There seems as descending the form of a Dove ! 
'T is the Emblem of Peace that King Solomon sends, 
To model and pattern the work of his friends. 

His friends, loving brothers, when homeward you go 
Bear Peace in your bosoms-, let Peace sweetly flow 1 
In concord, in friendship, in brotherly love, 
Be faithful, no emblem so true as the Dove; 
The world will confess then, with cheerful accord, 
You have met with King Solomon at midnight abroad! 


In the ranks of the faithful, whose biography is given 
with more or less minuteness in. the Holy Scriptures, 
there are Twenty-seven names especially worthy the 
reverence of SELECT MASTERS. They are named below 
in the order of their lives. Each in his day performed 
his part, Trowel in hand, girded about with white rai- 
ment as becometh the faithful of God, to spread the ce- 
ment upon the walls of moral architecture, and each is 
embalmed in the memory of all who revere virtue and 
fortitude devoted to a holy calling. 

1. ADAM. His birth was cotemporaneous with the 
creation of the world; he was the last and noblest of 
God's works. The victim of temptation, he was ban- 
ished from Eden and condemned to a toilsome lot, which 


he bore patiently, and thus, by faith in a coming Mes- 
siah, was reinstated in the favor of God. He died B. C. 
8074, aged 930 years. 

2. ABEL. Born B. C. 4001, he met with a shocking 
death at his brother's hands at the age of 126 years. 
In his meekness, his piety, attention to religious duty, 
and undeserved death, he is an emblem of 'one " whose 
blood speaketh better things than that of Abel." 

3. ENOCH. Born B. C. 3382, he was translated be- 
yond the persecutions of his enemies to the land of per- 
petual peace at the age of 365 years. "By faith Enoch 
was translated that he should not see death; and was 
not found because God had translated him ; for before 
his translation he had his testimony that he pleased 
God.' 3 

4. NOAH. Born B. C. 2948, this godly man, " being 
warned of God of things not seen as yet, moved with 
fear, prepared an ark to the saving of his house ; by the 
which he condemned the world and became an heir of 
the righteousness which is by faith." He survived the 
flood 349 years, dying at the age of 950 years. 

5. ABRAHAM. This memorable character, the founder 
of the Jewish nation, was born in Chaldea, B. C. 1996, 
and died near Hebron, in Canaan, at the age of 175 
years. "When called to go into a place which he 
should afterward receive for an inheritance, he obeyed; 
for he looked for a city which hath foundations, whose 
builder and maker is God." 


6. ISAAC. Born in the patriarchal abode at Beersheba, 
B. C. 1896, he lived a peaceable and quiet life, in the 
constant exercise of charity and benevolence, and died 
aged 180 years. 

7. JACOB. Born B. C. 1836, he lived a life of great 
vicissitudes, suffering much from the consequences of 
his own sins and the evil conduct of his children, yet 
ever trusting in God for pardon, and died in Egypt, in 
the arms of his beloved son Joseph, aged 147 years. 

8. JOSEPH. Born in Padan Aram, B. C. 1746, he was 
sold by his brothers as a slave, at the age of 17 years ; 
was taken to Egypt and became its governor at the 
youthful age of 30. A model son and brother, he 
brought down all his relatives to Egypt, where he pro- 
vided for their support, and died at the age of 110 

9. MOSES. Born in a state of servitude in Egypt, 
B. C. 1571, he became at the age of 80 the. Lawgiver 
and Captain of his people, whom he conducted by an 
arduous and devious route to the land of their fathers, 
and expired on Mount Pisgah, in view of the Promised 
Land, at the age of 120 years. 

10. AARON. Born in Egypt, B. C. 1574, he was the 
Deputy and Spokesman of his greater brother Moses; 
assisted him in conducting the people and putting into 
operation their new laws and ceremonials, and died upon 
Mount Hor, in Edom, at the age of 122 years. 



11. JOSHUA. Born in Egypt, B. C. 1553, lie accom- 
panied the spies from Kadesh Barnea into Canaan, was 
faithful amidst all disasters, and upon the death of 
Moses took command of the hosts of Israel, and accom- 
plished the conquest of Palestine within about six years. 
He died, aged 110 years. 

12. CALEB. Born in Egypt, his career resembled 
that of Joshua. He was one of the spies who brought 
a good report to Moses. In the conquest of Canaan he 
fought a good fight, and was allotted Hebron and its 
surroundings for his inheritance. 

13. BARAK. A deliverer of Israel from the grievous 
oppressions of Sisera, he ruled his people in the fear of 
God for forty years. 

14. GIDEON. A follower in the chivalrous career of 
Barak, he rescued his country from the Midianites in a 
great battle at the well Harod, striking boldly in the 
name of the Lord. 

15. JEPHTHAH. The third in this band of national 
deliverers, he drove back the Ammonites, achieving a 
decisive victory at Aroer, and by his piety and valor 
gave peace to Israel, whom he ruled for six years. 

16. SAMUEL. Born at Ramathaim Zophim, B. C. 1155, 
he became the most eminent prophet and priest since 
the days of Moses. From early youth he had access to 
God, and by successive communications derived the Di- 
vine will by which he ruled his people Israel. 


17. DAVID. Born at Bethlehem, B. C. 1085, he was 
from his youth " a man after God's own heart." Though at 
times overcome by temptation, his sins were not presump- 
tuous ; he submitted patiently to punishment, and poured 
forth his penitence and thanksgiving in his deathless 
Psalms. He died at the age of 71 years, and was 
buried on Mount Sion, where his sepulcher is shown to 
this day. 

18. SOLOMON. Born B. C. 1033, he is the Founder 
of Speculative Masonry or Freemasonry, of which his 
Temple on Mount Moriah was equally the spiritual and 
the practical model. He was emphatically the Wise 
King, the Moralist, the Royal Patron of Science and the 
Arts. Eed into shocking follies, his old age recalled 
him to a purer life, and he died, it may be hoped, in the 
prospect of a better world. 

19. HIRAM, KING OF TYRE. The royal friend and 
provider of King Solomon, the Great Temple at Jerusa- 
lem was equally indebted to his munificent procurement 
of materials and his experienced skill in their distribu- 

20. HIRAM, THE BUILDER. The Operative Grand 
Master and companion of two kings, was "a widow's 
son of the tribe of Naphtali, filled with all wisdom and 
understanding, and cunning to work all works in brass; 
skillful to work in gold, and in silver, and in brass, in 
iron, in stone, and in timber, in purple, in blue, and in 
fine linen, and in crimson; also to grave any manner of 
graving, and to find out every device which shall be put 


to him." This is the man whose noble death in defense 
of his integrity stands as a Masonic example to all ages. 

21. ADONIRAM. This man was the royal Treasurer 
of Solomon, and an active participant in the erection of 
the mystic temple of Freemasonry. 

22. ELIJAH. The Tishbite of Gilead stands fore- 
most in the Old Testament Scriptures for nearness of 
access to the throne of Deity, for boldness of approach 
to kings, for powers of enduring hunger, thirst, and fa- 
tigue when upon the mission of God, and for the splen- 
dor of his departure, on one of the summits of Abarim, 
a in a chariot of fire and with horses of fire." 

23. ELISHA. The son of Shaphat, of Abel Meholath, 
became the successor -of Elijah and the possessor of his 
mantle. . He enjoyed, like him, the manifest favor of God. 
His miraculous powers proved his favor with Deity, which 
he ever exerted for the benefit of suffering humanity. In 
his day the nation of Israel, long divided into two king- 
doms, was fast hastening, by a course of idolatry and 
sin, to its own destruction, an event that might be de- 
layed, but could not be prevented by all the efforts of 
these prophets. 

24. ZERUBBABEL. A prince of the house of David, 
one of the captivity, who had kept his apron unspotted 
during the years of his exile, it was his happy portion to 
lead back the first portion of Judah to the land of their 
fathers. The destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchad- 
nezzar occurred B. C. 588. Zerubbabel, with his follow- 


ers, reached the ruined city fifty-two years afterward, 
laid the foundation of the second Temple two years later, 
and dedicated it B. C. 515, seventy-three years after its 

25. EZRA. Coming from Babylon to Jerusalem, he 
was made governor, B. C. 457, and acted in that capac- 
ity for twelve years. He then became engaged in col- 
lecting and publishing the Jewish Scriptures, and restor- 
ing the purity of the Jewish worship. 

26. JUDAS MACCABEUS. Made governor of Judea, 
B. C. 166, this man was the last of a long array of holy 
and valiant men who upheld their nation, always strug- 
gling against the greatest odds, preserved their religion 
from total destruction, and left upon record examples of 
undying interest. 

27. JOHN THE EVANGELIST. Born by the Sea of Gali- 
lee, and accustomed to the hardships and poverty of a 
fisherman's life, this man was raised, by faith in the Son 
of God, to the most commanding eminence among the 
Sons of Light. For his amiability he was styled "the 
beloved Disciple." After the tragedy upon Calvary he 
took charge of Mary, the mother of Jesus. He bore 
exile and tortures unflinchingly for Christ's sake, and 
expired at the ripe age of 100 years, the last and great- 
est of the Apostles. 

These are the Twenty-seven whose names and history 
gleam forth from the pages of Scripture as the sun-rays 
from the eastern horizon, and who afford the laborers of 


the Trowel every shade of example which human exigen- 
cies can demand. 


It is essential to the understanding of Bible facts 
that a careful and accurate table of chronological data 
should be accessible to the reader. Such a one is here 
appended : 


4004 Creation of the World. 

4002 Birth of Cain. 

4001 Birth of Abel. 

3875 Murder of Abel. 

3874 Birth of Seth. 

3382 Birth of Enoch. 

3317 Birth of Methusaleh. 

3074 Death of Adam. 

3017 Translation of Enoch. 

2962 Death of Seth. 

2948 Birth of SToah. 

2468 The Deluge threatened. 

2348 Death of Methusaleh. 

2348 The Flood. 

2347 Termination of the Flood. 

2234 Building of Babel. 

2234 Confusion of Tongues and Dispersion. 

2233 Nimrod began the Assyrian Monarchy. 

2188 Mizraim began the Egyptian Monarchy. 

1998 Death of Noah. 

1996 Birth of Abraham. 

1936 Abraham called to Haran. 

1921 Abraham called to Canaan. 

1913 Abraham's Victory over the Kings. 

1910 Birth of Ishmael. 

1897 God's Covenant with Abraham. 



1896 Birth of Isaac. 

1871 Isaac offered. 

1859 Death of Sarah. 

1856 Isaac marries Rebecca. 

1836 Jacob and Esau born. 

1821 Death of Abraham. 

1759 Jacob went to Padan. 

1746 Joseph born. 

1739 Jacob returned to Canaan. 

1729 Joseph sold as a Slave. 

1716 Joseph made Governor of Egypt 

1716 Death of Isaac. 

1706 Jacob removed to Egypt. 

1689 Death of Jacob. 

1636 Death of Joseph. 

1574 Birth of Aaron. 

1571 Birth of Moses. 

1553 Birth of Joshua. 

1531 Moses fled to Midian. 

1491 Moses commissioned. 

1491 Departure of Israelites from Egypt 

1490 The Law delivered on Sinai. 

1452 Death of Miriam. 

1452 Death of Aaron. 

1451 Death of Moses. 

1451 Israelites enter Canaan. 

1443 Death of Joshua. 

1155 Birth of Samuel. 

1116 Death of Eli, the High-Priest 

1095 Saul anointed King. 

1085 Birth of David. 

1063 David anointed King. 

1055 Death of Saul. 

1048 David King over all Israel. 

1047 Jerusalem made*the Jewish Metropolis. 

1033 Birth of Solomon. 

1023 Death of Absalom. 



1015 Solomon crowned King. 
014 Death of David. 
004 Completion of the Temple. 
975 Rehoboam King. 
958 Abijah King. 
955 Asa King. 
614 Jehoshaphat King. 
892 Jehoram King. 
885 Ahaziah King. 
878 Joash King. 
839 Amaziah King. 
810 Uzziah King. 
758 Jotham King. 
742 Ahaz King. 
726 Hezekiah King. 
698 Manasseh King. 
643 Amon King. 
641 Josiah King. 
610 Jehoahaz King. 
599 Jehoiachin King. 
599 Zedekiah King. 
588 Babylonian Captivity. 
588 Destruction of Jerusalem 
538 Babylon taken by Cyrus. 
536 Return of Captives to Jerusalem. 
534 Foundations laid of Second Temple. 
529 The work ordered to cease. 
520 Favorable Decree b.y Darius. 
518 Esther made Queen. 
515 Second Temple, completed. 
510 Hainan's Plot frustrated. 
484 Xerxes King of Persia. 
464 Artaxerxes Longimarius. 
457 Ezra sent to govern Jerusalem. 
423 Darius Nothus. 

335 Alexander establishes the Grecian Empire 
332 -Jaddus High-Priest 



323 Death of Alexander. 

320 Jerusalem taken by Ptolemacus Lagus. 

277 Septuagint Version of Scriptures made. 

170 Jerusalem taken by Antiochus Epiphanes. 

166 Judas Maccabaeus Governor. 

161 Jonathan Governor. 

135 John Tlyrcanus. 

107 Judas High-Priest and King. 

63 Jerusalem taken by Pompey. 

40 Herod the Great, King. 

28 Augustus Caesar Emperor of Borne. 

18 Herod begins the Third Temple. 
4 Birth of John the Baptist 
4 Birth of Jesus Christ 


1 Birth of Jesus Christ. 
12 Jesus visits Jerusalem. 
18 Tiberias Emperor of Rome. 
26 Pontius Pilate Governor of Judea 
29 John the Baptist began his Ministry. 
30 Jesus baptized by John. 
33 Jesus was Crucified. 
35 Martyrdom of Stephen. 
36 Saul Converted. 
38 Conversion of the Gentiles. 
42 Herod Agrippa King of Judea. 
44 James beheaded. 
54 Nero Emperor of Rome. 
63 Paul sent prisoner to Rome. 
65 Commencement of Jewish War. 
66 Death of Paul. 

70 Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus. 
71 The City and Temple razed to foundation* 
79 Titus Emperor of Rome. 
81 Domitian Emperor of Rome. 
95 John banished to Patmos. 
96 John wrote Apocalypse. 


A. D. 

97 John liberated from exile. 
100 John died. 

ANTIQUITY. There are few subjects to which antiquity 
does not lend a charm. The meditative mind loves to 
dwell upon what bears the impress of ages long gone 
by. An indefinable charm lingers around aged things 
the oak, through whose branches have whistled the winds 
of a thousand winters; the mountain, whose bald summit 
has warded off the thunderbolts of ages ; the stately pile 
of art, whose arches have echoed the footsteps of untold 
generations and enchains the spirit as if by some magic 
spell. They connect us with the past, and tinge the 
mind with the solemn hues that color the distant. They 
extort an homage from the beholder that few things can. 
He who possesses a feeling soul will linger amid such 
scenes and objects with a pleasure mixed with grateful 

And if such is the power of antiquity when connect- 
ing us with things inanimate, how much more potent 
does it become when connecting us with the society of 
living, sentient beings of like feelings with ourselves! 
How sensitive the chord, how profound the feelings it 
awakens there ! We no longer feel ourselves existing 
only now, and as individuals, but to be living at each 
separate period of our society's duration, and to have 
our hearts swell with the feelings and our minds kindle 
with the thoughts of all our brethren before us. Is it 
strange, then, that the Freemason should read the his- 
tory of his ancient brethren with emotions? that he 
should love his Order all the better for being ancient, 
and render it an homage profounder and more devo- 


tional on that account? Had it been worthless it could 
never have become old. Things worthless do not so out- 
last the wastings of time ; do not triumph, age after age, 
over all the oppositions of power and intelligence, in- 
flamed by untiring hostility. 

These thoughts are suggested to our minds in taking 
a chronological view like that afforded by the tables 
above. Measuring back from the Evangelist John, we 
mark a long array of names of men who have left their 
"footprints on the sands of time," and whose lives have 
been living monuments of the teachings of Freemasonry. 
A Society that flourished in the times of a Solomon, a 
Zerubbabel, a John a light that shone with equal brill- 
iancy upon an Abraham, a Moses, a Samuel is worthy 
of profoundest admiration, if only for its antiquity and 
its unchangeableness in a world so fickle as ours. To 
look at a table of eminent men in the earlier stages of 
history is to look upon the Freemasons' Roll. 

The principles by which these fathers of the ancient 
Art were actuated were few, simple, sublime. They 
are all communicated, either in letter or spirit, in the 
Moral Law, the Ten Commandments. Upon these, as a 
basis, men of all nations, ages, faiths could harmonize, 
and can harmonize. To add new rules and injunctions 
to these is to destroy the very Society which it is pro- 
posed thus to amend. This the poet has truly expressed 
in the following lines: 

The OLD is better; is it not the plan 

By which the Wise in by-gone days contrived 

To bind in willing fetters man to man 
And strangers in a sacred nearness lived? 


Is there in modern wisdom aught like that 
Which 'midst the blood and carnage of the plain 

Can calm man's fury, mitigate his hate, 
And join disrupted friends in love again ? 

No: for three thousand years the smiles of heaven, 

Smiles on whose sunbeams comes unmeasured joy, 
To this thrice-honored cement have been given, 

This bond, this covenant, this sacred tie: 
It cornea to us full-laden : from the tomb 

A countless host conspire to name its worth, 
Who sweetly sleep beneath the Acacia's bloom 

And there is naught like Masonry on earth, 

Then guard the venerable relic well; 

Protect it, Masters, from the unholy hand; 
See that its emblems the same lessons tell 

Sublime, through every age and every land: 
Be not a line erased ; the pen that drew 

These matchless tracings was the Pen Divine: 
Infinite wisdom best for mortals knew; 

God will preserve intact the grand design. 








TKI Temple of Solomon, in general form, resembled 
tho Tabernacle; in fact, it was a substitute for the 
Tabernacle, which was only adapted to a wayfaring 
people, and like it, the temple was the great center of 
the same system of ceremonial worship. It was built 
upon Mount Moria, which was one summit of a range 
of hills, the general name of which was Mount Zion. 
Beginning on the north, this ridge bears the name of 
Bezetha, then Moriah, then Ophel, the latter running 
down to the junction of the ravine termed the Tyro- 
peon, with the valley of Jehoshaphat. Mount Moriah 
has an altitude on the east of about four hundred feet 
above the valley. 


The idea of building a temple was suggested to the 
mind of David by the contemplation of his own good 
fortune, the general state of prosperity to which his 
country had arrived, and his fraternal relations with 
the Phoenician king Hiram, whose dominions afforded 
suitable wood, and his subjects suitable workmen, foi 
the edifice. It became to David an object of lively 
and unceasing interest; and, although, he was not per- 
mitted by the Almighty to take a single step in its 
action, yet, during the latter years of his reign, he 
collected precious metals to the value of many millions 
of dollars, besides immense quantities of brass, iron, 
stone and other material, and secured skillful artificers 
for every branch of the work. He also furnished tho 
design, plan and location of the building in all of 
which he was divinely instructed. The superintend- 
ence and erection of it was, however, committed to 
his wise son Solomon, who, in the fourth year of his 
reign, laid the foundation-stone and began the work. 

Like the Tabernacle, the Temple had its front toward 
the east. The porch or portico extended across the 
whole front, projecting fifteen feet from the main build- 
ing. Upon the sides and rear of the main building was 
an additional building of three stories, each nearly eight 
feet high. This structure was about half the height 
of the Temple proper, and, though built against the 
walls was not fastened to them. It was divided into 
apartments like chambers, which opened into the gal- 
lery which surrounded it. There was a flight of stairs 


on the south side which led into the second story, and 
another leading from the second into the third. The 
whole building and its environs were entered by two 
courts ; the inner court, called the court of the Priests, 
corresponds, generally, with the court of the Taber- 
nacle, as did also the sacred apartments, furniture, and 

The structure, for beauty, magnificence, and expense, 
exceeded every building ever known to the world. It 
was built with large blocks of white marble, hewn in 
a very curious manner, and so joined together that 
they deceived the eye, and looked like one entire 
stone. Its inner walls, beams, posts, doors, floors, and 
ceilings were made of cedar wood, olive wood, and 
planks of fir, covered with plates of gold, engraved 
with marks of various characters, and adorned with 
precious jewels of many colors, disposed in a running 
order. The nails which fastened these plates were of 
gold, with heads of curious workmanship. The roof 
was of olive wood, covered with plates of gold which 
shone with such brightness as to dazzle the eyes of 
the beholder. The court in which the Temple stood, 
and those without it, were built on all sides with stately 
buildings and cloisters; and the gates entering therein 
were very beautiful and sumptuous. 

The vessels consecrated to the perpetual use of the 
Temple were not less noble than the pile itself. Jo- 
sophus counts one hundred and forty thousand of them 
which were made of gold, and one million three hun- 


drod and forty thousand of silver; ten thousand vest- 
ments of silk, with purple girdles, for the Priests, and 
two millions of purple vestments for singers. Thero 
were, likewise, two hundred trumpets, and forty thou- 
sand other musical instruments made use of in prais- 
ing God. By Yillalpandus's computation of the num- 
ber of talents of gold, silver, and brass laid out upon 
the Temple, the sum amounts to six thousand nine 
hundred and four millions, eight hundred and twenty- 
two thousand and five hundred pounds sterling; and 
the jewels are reckoned to exceed this sum; while ac- 
cording to Capel's reduction of the talents contained 
in the gold and silver vessels in the use of the Temple, 
the sum of the gold ones amounts to five hundred and 
forty -five millions, two hundred and ninety-six thou- 
sand, two hundred and three pounds and four shill- 
ings sterling, and the silver came to four hundred 
and thirty-nine millions, three hundred and forty -four 
thousand pounds sterling. Besides these, there were 
charges for other materials, and of ten thousand men 
per month in Lebanon to hew timber, seventy thousand 
to carry burdens, eighty thousand to hew stones, and 
three thousand three hundred overseers, who were all 
employed for seven years ; and to whom, besides their 
regular wages and food, Solomon gave, as a free gift, 
six millions seven hundred and thirty -three thousand, 
nine hundred and seventy-seven pounds sterling. 

The treasure left by David, toward carrying on this 
work, is estimated by Villalpandus at nine hundred 


and eleven millions, four hundred and sixteen thou- 
sand, two hundred and seven pounds sterling; to 
which, if we add Solomon's annual revenue, his trading 
to Ophir for Gold, and the presents made him by all 
the earth, we are not surprised at his being able to 
complete this work in so expensive a manner ; nor can 
we, without impiety, question its surpassing all other 
structures, since we learn from 1 Chron. v: 23, that 
it was built by the express direction of God himself. 

The most interesting portion of this structure was, 
however, the Sanctum Sanctorum, or Holy of Holies, 
which was a room thirty feet square and thirty feet 
high. The floor of this apartment was overlaid with 
gold, and the walls adorned with palm-trees and cher- 
ubim. The gold finish of this small apartment ab- 
sorbed four millions three hundred and twenty-seven 
pounds sterling. This most holy place was made on 
purpose to be a tabernacle for the Ark, which was 
placed in the middle of it between two cherubims of 
image work, each fifteen feet high, having their wings 
expanded each five cubits long, two of which touched 
the walls, while the other two met and touched each 
other exactly over the middle of the ark, their faces 
being turned inward in a worshiping posture. Tho 
Ark, called the "glory of Israel," was a small chest 
or coffer, three feet nine inches long, two feet three 
inches wide, and three feet three inches high. It 
was made of wood, excepting only the top or mercy- 
seat, but all overlaid with gold both inside and out, 


and it had a ledge of gold surrounding it at the top 
into which, as into a socket, was let the cover called 
the " Mercy-seat. 1 ' This mercy-seat was made of solid 
gold, the thickness of a hand's breadth. At tho two 
ends of it were two cherubim, looking inward toward 
each other, with their wings expanded, and embracing 
the whole circumference of the "mercy-seat," met on 
every side and in the middle. The whole of this 
"mercy-seat," it was affirmed by the Eabbins, was 
made out of one solid lump of gold, with neither 
rivets nor soldering of any of its parts. It was here 
the Shekinah or Divine Presence rested, and was visi- 
ble in the appearance of a cloud above it. From 
hence the Bathkoll issued and gave answers when God 
was consulted, and hence it is that God is said, in 
Scripture, to dwell between the cherubim that is be- 
tween the cherubim on the mercy-seat because there 
was the seat or throne of the visible appearance of 
God's glory among them. 

This work was engraved at Boston, Mass., upon two steel 
plates, from the celebrated design of Chancellor Schott, 
of Hamburg, at a cost exceeding two thousand dollars. 
Nothing but an examination will afford a sufficient idea 
of the fund of instruction embodied in this work. The 
border designs, of which there are eight, the drawings sub- 
sidiary, of which there are four, and the scriptural and 
historical passages thickly interspersed, make it a perfect 
cyclopedia of the subject. The size of the plate is 24 by 42 
inches, and the price is, for plain prints $2, and for colored 
$2.50 each. Where clubs of five or more unite, the prices 
will be $1.50 for plain, and $.2.00 for colored copies. 




Books not returned on time are subject to a fine of 
50c per volume after the third day overdue, increasing 
to $1.00 per volume after the sixth day. Books not in 
demand may be renewed if application is made before 
expiration of loan period. 



MAR 11 1955* 

MAR 1 


1 1970 

if/ 7 / 








YB 06533